The Library of Original Sources, Vol 1

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The Last Days of Buddha

CHAPTER I.

1. Thus have I heard. The Blessed One was once dwelling in Ragagaha, on the hill called the Vulture’s Peak. Now at that time Agatasattu, the son of the queen-consort of Videha origin, the king of Magadha, was desirous of attacking the Vaggians; and he said to himself, ’I will root out these Vaggians, mighty and powerful though they be, I will destroy these Vaggians, I will bring these Vaggians to utter ruin!’

2. So he spake to the Brahman Vassakara, the prime-minister of Magadha, and said:

’Come now, O Brahman, do you go to the Blessed One, and bow down in adoration at his feet on my behalf, and enquire in my name whether he is free from illness and suffering, and in the enjoyment of ease and comfort, and vigorous health. Then tell him that Agatasattu, son of the Vedehi, the king of Magadha, in his eagerness to attack the Vaggians, has resolved, "I will root out these Vaggians, mighty and powerful though they be, I will destroy these Vaggians, I will bring these Vaggians to utter ruin!" And bear carefully in mind whatever the Blessed One may predict, and repeat it to me. For the Buddhas speak nothing untrue!’

3. Then the Brahman Vassakara hearkened to the words of the king, saying, ’Be it as you say.’ And ordering a number of magnificent carriages to be made ready, he mounted one of them, left Ragagaha with his train, and went to the Vulture’s Peak, riding as far as the ground was passable for carriages, and then alighting and proceeding on foot to the place where the Blessed One was. On arriving there he exchanged with the Blessed One the greetings and compliments of friendship and civility, sat down respectfully by his side [and then delivered to him the message even as the king had commanded].

4. Now at that time the venerable Ananda was standing behind the Blessed One, and fanning him. And the Blessed One said to him: ’Have you heard, Ananda, that the Vaggians hold full andfrequent public assemblies?’

’Lord, so I have heard,’ replied he.

’So long, Ananda,’ rejoined the Blessed One, ’as the Vaggians hold these full and frequent public assemblies; so long may they be expected not to decline, but to prosper.’

[And in like manner questioning Ananda, and receiving a similar reply, the Blessed One declared as follows the other conditions which would ensure the welfare of the Vaggian confederacy.]

’So long, Ananda, as the Vaggians meet together in concord, and rise in concord, and carry out their undertakings in concord—so long as they enact nothing not already established, abrogate nothing that has been already enacted, and act in accordance with the ancient institutions of the Vaggians as established in former days—so long as they honour and esteem and revere and support the Vaggian elders, and hold it a point of duty to hearken to their words—so long as no women or girls belonging to their clans are detained among them by force or abduction—so long as they honour and esteem and revere and support the Vaggian shrines in town or country, and allow not the proper offerings and rites, as formerly given and performed, to fall into desuetude—so long as the rightful protection, defence, and support shall be fully provided for the Arahats among them, so that Arahats from a distance may enter the realm, and the Arahats therein may live at ease—so long may the Vaggians be expected not to decline, but to prosper.’

5. Then the Blessed One addressed Vassakara the Brahman, and said:

’When I was once staying, O Brahman, at Vesali at the Sarandada Temple, I taught the Vaggians these conditions of welfare; and so long as those conditions shall continue to exist among the Vaggians, so long as the Vaggians shall be well instructed in those conditions, so long may we expect them not to decline, but to prosper.’

’We may expect then, answered the Brahman, ’the welfare and not the decline of the Vaggians when they are possessed of any one of these conditions of welfare, how much more so when they are possessed of all the seven. So, Gotama, the Vaggians cannot be overcome by the king of Magadha; that is, not in battle, without diplomacy or breaking up their alliance. And now, Gotama, we must go; we are busy, and have much to do.’

IKEGAMI TEMPLE, SHOWING BOXES CONTAINING BUDDHIST SCRIPTURES (Japan)

From a Photograph Copyright by Underwood&Underwood

’Whatever you think most fitting, O Brahman,’ was the reply. And the Brahman Vassakara, delighted and pleased with the words from a Photograph Copyright by Underwood&Underwoodof the Blessed One, rose from his seat, and went his way.

6. Now soon after he had gone the Blessed One addressed the venerable Ananda, and said: ’Go now, Ananda, and assemble in the Service Hall such of the Brethren as live in the neighbourhood of Ragagaha.’

And he did so; and returned to the Blessed One, and informed him, saying:

’The company of the Brethren, Lord, is assembled, let the Blessed One do as seemeth to him fit.’

And the Blessed One arose, and went to the Service Hall; and when he was seated, he addressed the Brethren, and said:

’I will teach you, O mendicants, seven conditions of the welfare of a community. Listen well and attend, and I will speak.’

’Even so, Lord,’ said the Brethren, in assent, to the Blessed One; and he spake as follows:

’So long, O mendicants, as the brethren meet together in full and frequent assemblies—so long as they meet together in concord, and rise in concord, and carry out in concord the duties of the order—so long as the brethren shall establish nothing that has not been already prescribed and abrogate nothing that has been already established, and act in accordance with the rules of the order as now laid down—so long as the brethren honour and esteem and revere and support the elders of experience and long standing, the fathers and leaders of the order, and hold it a point of duty to hearken to their words—so long as the brethren fall not under the influence of that craving which, springing up within them, would give rise to renewed existence—so long as the brethren delight in a life of solitude—so long as the brethren so train their minds that good and holy men shall come to them, and those who have come shall dwell at ease—so long may the brethren be expected, not to decline, but to prosper. So long as these seven conditions shall continue to exist among the brethren, so long as they are well-instructed in these conditions, so long may the brethren be expected not to decline, but to prosper.’

7. ’Other seven conditions of welfare will I teach you, O brethren. Listen well, and attend, and I will speak.’

And on their expressing their assent, he spoke as follows:

’So long as the brethren shall not engage in, or be fond of, or be connected with business—so long as the brethren shall not be in the habit of, or be fond of, or be partakers in idle talk—so long asthe brethren shall not be addicted to, or be fond of, or indulge in slothfulness—so long as the brethren shall not frequent, or be fond of, or indulge in society—so long as the brethren shall neither have, nor fall under the influence of, sinful desires—so long as the brethren shall not become the friends, companions, or intimates of sinners—so long as the brethren shall not come to a stop on their way [to Nirvana] because they have attained to any lesser thing—so long may the brethren be expected not to decline, but to prosper.

’So long as these conditions shall continue to exist among the brethren, so long as they are instructed in these conditions—so long as the brethren shall not become the friends, companions, or intimates of sinners—so long as the brethren shall not come to a full-stop on their way (to Nirvana) because they have attained to any lesser thing—so long may the brethren be expected not to decline, but to prosper.’

8. ’Other seven conditions of welfare will I teach you, O brethren. Listen well, and attend, and I will speak.’

And on their expressing their assent, he spake as follows:

’So long as the brethren shall be full of faith, modest in heart, afraid of sin, full of learning, strong in energy, active in mind, and full of wisdom, so long may the brethren be expected not to decline, but to prosper.

’So long as these conditions shall continue to exist among the brethren, so long as they are instructed in these conditions, so long may the brethren be expected not to decline, but to prosper.’

9. ’Other seven conditions of welfare will I teach you, O brethren. Listen well, and attend, and I will speak.’

And on their expressing their assent, he spake as follows:

’So long as the brethren shall exercise themselves in the sevenfold higher wisdom, that is to say, in mental activity, search after truth, energy, joy, peace, earnest contemplation, and equanimity of mind, so long may the brethren be expected not to decline, but to prosper.

’So long as these conditions shall continue to exist among the brethren, so long as they are instructed in these conditions, so long may the brethren be expected not to decline, but to prosper.’

10. ’Other seven conditions of welfare will I teach you, O brethren. Listen well, and attend, and I will speak.’

And on their expressing their assent, he spake as follows:

’So long as the brethren shall exercise themselves in theseven-fold perception due to earnest thought, that is to say, the perception of impermanency, of non-individuality, of corruption, of the danger of sin, of sanctification, of purity of heart, of Nirvana, so long may the brethren be expected not to decline, but to prosper.

’So long as these conditions shall continue to exist among the brethren, so long as they are instructed in these conditions, so long may the brethren be expected not to decline, but to prosper.’

11. ’Six conditions of welfare will I teach you, O brethren. Listen well, and attend, and I will speak.’

And on their expressing their assent, he spake as follows:

’So long as the brethren shall persevere in kindness of action, speech, and thought amongst the saints, both in public and in private—so long as they shall divide without partiality, and share in common with the upright and the holy, all such things as they receive in accordance with the just provisions of the order, down even to the mere contents of a begging bowl—so long as the brethren shall live among the saints in the practice, both in public and in private, of those virtues which (unbroken, intact, unspotted, unblemished) are productive of freedom, and praised by the wise; which are untarnished by the desire of future life, or by the belief in the efficacy of outward acts; and which are conducive to high and holy thoughts—so long as the brethren shall live among the saints, cherishing, both in public and in private, that noble and saving faith which leads to the complete destruction of the sorrow of him who acts according to it—so long may the brethren be expected not to decline, but to prosper.

’So long as these six conditions shall continue to exist among the brethren, so long as they are instructed in these six conditions, so long may the brethren be expected not to decline, but to prosper.’

12. And whilst the Blessed One stayed there at Ragagaha on the Vulture’s Peak he held that comprehensive religious talk with the brethren on the nature of upright conduct, and of earnest contemplation, and of intelligence. ’Great is the fruit, great the advantage of earnest contemplation when set round with upright conduct. Great is the fruit, great the advantage of intellect when set round with earnest contemplation. The mind set around with intelligence is freed from the great evils, that is to say, from sensuality, from individuality, from delusion, and from ignorance.’

13. Now when the Blessed One had sojourned at Ragagaha as long as he pleased, he addressed the venerable Ananda, and said:’Come, Ananda, let us go to Ambalatthika.’

’So be it, Lord!’ said Ananda in assent, and the Blessed One, with a large company of the brethren, proceeded to Ambalatthika.

14. There the Blessed One stayed in the king’s house and held that comprehensive religious talk with the brethren on the nature of upright conduct, and of earnest contemplation, and of intelligence. ’Great is the fruit, great the advantage of earnest contemplation when set round with upright conduct. Great is the fruit, great the advantage of intellect when set round with earnest contemplation. The mind set round with intelligence is freed from the great evils, that is to say, from sensuality, from individuality, from delusion, and from ignorance.’

15. Now when the Blessed One had stayed as long as was convenient at Ambalatthika, he addressed the venerable Ananda, and said: ’Come, Ananda, let us go on to Nalanda.’

’So be it, Lord!’ said Ananda, in assent, to the Blessed One.

Then the Blessed One proceeded, with a great company of the brethren, to Nalanda; and there, at Nalanda, the Blessed One stayed in the Pavarika mango grove.

16. Now the venerable Sariputta came to the place where the Blessed One was, and having saluted him, took his seat respectfully at his side, and said: ’Lord! such faith have I in the Blessed One, that methinks there never has been, nor will there be, nor is there now any other, whether Samana or Brahman, who is greater and wiser than the Blessed One, that is to say, as regards the higher wisdom.’

’Grand and bold are the words of thy mouth, Sariputta: verily, thou hast burst forth into a song of ecstasy! of course then thou hast known all the Blessed Ones who in the long ages of the past have been Arahat Buddhas, comprehending their minds with yours, and aware what their conduct was, what their doctrine, what their wisdom, what their mode of life, and what salvation they attained to?’

’Not so, O Lord!’

’Of course then thou hast perceived all the Blessed Ones who in the long ages of the future shall be Arahat Buddhas comprehending [in the same manner their whole minds with yours]?’

’Not so, O Lord!’

’But at least then, O Sariputta, thou knowest me as the Arahat Buddha now alive, and hast penetrated my mind [in the manner Ihave mentioned]!’

’Not even that, O Lord!’

’You see then, Sariputta, that you know not the hearts of the Arahat Buddhas of the past and of the future. Why therefore are your words so grand and bold? Why do you burst forth into such a song of ecstasy?’

17. ’O Lord! I have not the knowledge of the hearts of the Arahat Buddhas that have been, and are to come, and now are. I only know the lineage of the faith. Just, Lord, as a king might have a border city, strong in its foundations, strong in its ramparts and toranas, and with one gate alone; and the king might have a watchman there, clever, expert, and wise, to stop all strangers and admit only friends. And he, on going over the approaches all round the city, might not so observe all the joints and crevices in the ramparts of that city as to know where even a cat could get out. That might well be. Yet all living things of larger size that entered or left the city, would have to do so by that gate. Thus only is it, Lord, that I know the lineage of the faith. I know that the Arahat Buddhas of the past, putting away all lust, ill-will, sloth, pride, and doubt; knowing all those mental faults which make men weak; training their minds in the four kinds of mental activity; thoroughly exercising themselves in the sevenfold higher wisdom, received the full fruition of Enlightenment. And I know that the Arahat Buddhas of the times to come will [do the same]. And I know that the Blessed One, the Arahat Buddha of to-day, has [done so] now.’

18. There in the Pavarika mango grove the Blessed One held that comprehensive religious talk with the brethren on the nature of Upright conduct, and of earnest contemplation, and of intelligence. ’Great is the fruit, great the advantage of earnest contemplation when set round with upright conduct. Great is the fruit, great the advantage of intellect when set round with earnest contemplation. The mind set round with intelligence is freed from the great evils, that is to say, from sensuality, from individuality, from delusion, and from ignorance.’

19. Now when the Blessed One had stayed as long as was convenient at Nalanda, he addressed the venerable Ananda, and said: ’Come, Ananda, let us go on to Pataligama.’

’So be it, Lord! said Ananda, in assent, to the Blessed One.

Then the Blessed One proceeded, with a great company of the brethren, to Pataligama.

20. Now the disciples at Pataligama heard of his arrival there, and they went to the place where he was, took their seats respectfully beside him, and invited him to their village rest house. And the Blessed One signified, by silence, his consent.

21. Then the Pataligama disciples seeing that he had accepted the invitation, rose from their seats, and went away to the rest house, bowing to the Blessed One and keeping him on their right as they past him. On arriving there they made the rest house fit in every way for occupation, placed seats in it, set up a water-pot, and fixed an oil lamp. Then they returned to the Blessed One, and bowing, stood beside him, and said: ’All things are ready, Lord! It is time for you to do what you deem most fit.’

22. And the Blessed One robed himself, took his bowl and other things, went with the brethren to the rest house, washed his feet, entered the hall, and took his seat against the centre pillar, with his face towards the east. And the brethren also, after washing their feet, entered the hall, and took their seats round the Blessed One, against the western wall, and facing the east. And the Pataligama disciples too, after washing their feet, entered the hall, and took their seats opposite the Blessed One, against the eastern wall, and facing towards the west.

23. Then the Blessed One addressed the Pataligama disciples, and said: ’Fivefold, O householders, is the loss of the wrong-doer through his want of rectitude. In the first place the wrong-doer, devoid of rectitude, falls into great poverty through sloth; in the next place his evil repute gets noised abroad; thirdly, whatever society he enters—whether of Brahmans, nobles, heads of houses, or Samanas—he enters shyly and confused; fourthly, he is full of anxiety when he dies; and lastly, on the dissolution of the body, after death, he is reborn into some unhappy state of suffering or woe. This, O householders, is the fivefold loss of the evil-doer!’

24. ’Fivefold, O householders, is the gain of the well-doer through his practice of rectitude. In the first place the well-doer, strong in rectitude, acquires great wealth through his industry; in the next place, good reports of him are spread abroad; thirdly, whatever society he enters—whether of nobles, Brahmans, heads of houses, or members of the order—he enters confident and self-possessed; fourthly, he dies without anxiety; and lastly, on the dissolution ofthe body, after death, he is reborn into some happy state in heaven. This, O householders, is the fivefold gain of the well-doer.’

25. When the Blessed One had thus taught the disciples, and incited them, and roused them, and gladdened them, far into the night with religious discourse, he dismissed them, saying, ’The night is far spent, O householders. It is time for you to do what you deem most fit.’ ’Even so, Lord!’ answered the disciples of Pataligama, and they rose from their seats, and bowing to the Blessed One, and keeping him on their right hand as they passed him, they departed thence.

And the Blessed One, not long after the disciples of Pataligama had departed thence, entered into his private chamber.

26. At that time Sunidha and Vassakara, the chief ministers of Magadha, were building a fortress at Pataligama to repel the Vaggians, and there were a number of fairies who haunted in thousands the plots of ground there. Now, wherever ground is so occupied by powerful fairies, they bend the hearts of the most powerful kings and ministers to build dwelling-places there, and fairies of middling and inferior power bend in a similar way the hearts of middling or inferior kings and ministers.

27. And the Blessed One, with his great and clear vision, surpassing that of ordinary men, saw thousands of those fairies haunting Pataligama. And he rose up very early in the morning, and said to Ananda: ’Who is it then, Ananda, who is building a fortress at Pataligama?’

’Sunidha and Vassakara, Lord, the chief ministers of Magadha, are building a fortress there to keep back the Vaggians.’

28. They act, Ananda, as if they had consulted with the Tavatimsa angels. [And telling him of what he had seen, and of the influence such fairies had, he added]: ’And among famous places of residence and haunts of busy men, this will become the chief, the city of Patali-putta, a centre for the interchange of all kinds of wares. But three dangers will hang over Patali-putta, that of fire, that of water, and that of dissension.’

29. Now Sunidha and Vassakara, the chief ministers of Magadha, proceeded to the place where the Blessed One was. And when they had come there they exchanged with the Blessed One the greetings and compliments of friendship and civility, and stood there respectfully on one side. And, so standing, Sunidha and Vassakara,the chief ministers of Magadha, spake thus to the Blessed One:

’May the venerable Gotama do us the honour of taking the meal, together with the company of the brethren, at our house to-day.’ And the Blessed One signified, by silence, his consent.

30. Then when Sunidha and Vassakara, the chief ministers of Magadha, perceived that he had given his consent, they returned to the place where they dwelt. And on arriving there, they prepared sweet dishes of boiled rice, and cakes; and informed the Blessed One, saying:

’The hour of food has come, O Gotama, and all is ready.’

And the Blessed One robed himself early, took his bowl with him, and repaired with the brethren to the dwelling-place of Sunidha and Vassakara, and sat down on the seat prepared for him. And with their own hands they set the sweet rice and the cakes before the brethren with the Buddha at their head, and waited on them till they had had enough. And when the Blessed One had finished eating his meal, the ministers brought a low seat, and sat down respectfully at his side.

31. And when they were thus seated the Blessed One gave thanks in these verses:—

’Wheresoe’er the prudent man shall take up his abode
Let him support there good and upright men of self-control.
Let him give gifts to all such deities as may be there.
Revered, they will revere him: honoured, they honour him again;
Are gracious to him as a mother to her own, her only son.
And the man who has the grace of the gods, good fortune he beholds.’

32. And when he had thanked the ministers in these verses he rose from his seat and departed thence. And they followed him as he went, saying, ’The gate the Samana Gotama goes out by to-day shall be called Gotama’s gate, and the ferry at which he crosses the river shall be called Gotama’s ferry.’ And the gate he went out at was called Gotama’s gate.

33. But the Blessed One went on to the river. And at that time the river Ganges was brimful and, overflowing; and wishing to cross to the opposite bank, some began to seek for boats, some for rafts of wood, while some made rafts of basket-work. Then the Blessed One as instantaneously as a strong man would stretch forth his arm, or draw it back again when he had stretched it forth,vanished from this side of the river, and stood on the further bank with the company of the brethren.

34. And the Blessed One beheld the people looking for boats and rafts, and as he beheld them he brake forth at that time into this song:—

’Thy who cross the ocean drear
Making a solid path across the pools—
Whilst the vain world ties its basket rafts—
These are the wise, these are the saved indeed!’

End of the First Portion for Recitation.

CHAPTER II.

1. Now the Blessed One addressed the venerable Ananda, and said: ’Come, Ananda, let us go on to Kotigama.’

’So be it, Lord!’ said Ananda, in assent, to the Blessed One.

The Blessed One proceeded with a great company of the brethren to Kotigama; and there he stayed in the village itself.

2. And at that place the Blessed One addressed the brethren, and said: ’It is through not understanding and grasping four Noble Truths, O brethren, that we have had to run so long, to wander so long in this weary path of transmigration, both you and I!’

’And what are these four?’

’The noble truth about sorrow; the noble truth about the cause of sorrow; the noble truth about the cessation of sorrow; and the noble truth about the path that leads to that cessation. But when these noble truths are grasped and known the craving for existence is rooted out, that which leads to renewed existence is destroyed, and then, there is no more birth!’

3. Thus spake the Blessed One; and when the Happy One had thus spoken, then again the Teacher said:

’By not seeing the four Noble Truths as they really are,
Long is the path that is traversed through many a birth;
When these are grasped, the cause of birth is then removed,
The root of sorrow rooted out, and there is no more birth.’

4. There too, while staying at Kotigama, the Blessed One held that comprehensive religious discourse with the brethren on the nature of upright conduct, and of earnest contemplation, and of intelligence.’Great is the fruit, great the advantage of earnest contemplation when set round with upright conduct. Great is the fruit, great the advantage of intellect When set round with earnest contemplation. The mind set round with intelligence is freed from the evils,—that is to say, from sensuality, from individuality, from delusion, and from ignorance.’

5. Now when the Blessed One had remained as long as was convenient at Kotigama, he addressed the venerable Ananda, and said: ’Come, Ananda, let us go on to the village of Nadika.’

’So be it, Lord!’ said Ananda, in assent, to the Blessed One.

And the Blessed proceeded to the villages of Nadika with a great company of the brethren; and there, at Nadika, the Blessed One stayed at the Brick Hall.

6. And the venerable Ananda went to the Blessed One and paid him reverence and took his seat beside him. And when he was seated, he addressed the Blessed One, and said: ’The brother named Salha has died at Nadika, Lord. Where has he been reborn, and what is his destiny? The sister named Nanda has died, Lord, at Nadika. Where is she reborn, and what is her destiny?’ And in the same terms he enquired concerning the devout Sudatta, and the devout lady Sugata, the devout Kakudha, and Kalinga, and Nikata, and Katissabha, and Tuttha, and Santuttha, and Bhadda, and Subhadda.

7. ’The brother named Salha, Ananda, by the destruction of the great evils has by himself, and in this world, known and realised and attained to Arahatship, and to emancipation of heart and to emancipation of mind. The sister named Nanda, Ananda, has, by the complete destruction of the five bonds that bind people to this world, become an inheritor of the highest heavens, there to pass entirely away, thence never to return. The devout Sudatta, Ananda, by the complete destruction of the three bonds, and by the reduction to a minimum of lust, hatred, and delusion has become a Sakadagamin, who on his first return to this world will make an end of sorrow. The devout woman Sugata, Ananda, by the complete destruction of the three bonds, has become converted, is no longer liable to be reborn in a state of suffering, and is assured of final salvation. The devout Kakudha, Ananda, by the complete destruction of the five bonds that bind people to these lower worlds of lust, has become an inheritor of the highest heavens, there to pass entirely away, thence never toreturn. So also is the case with Kalinga, Nikata, Katissabha, Tuttha, Santuttha, Bhadda, and Subhadda, and with more than fifty devout men of Nadika. More than ninety devout men of Nadika, who have died, Ananda, have by the complete destruction of the three bonds, and by the reduction of lust, hatred, and delusion, become Sakadagamins, who on their first return to this world will make an end of sorrow. More than five hundred devout men of Nadika who have died, Ananda, have by the complete destruction of the three bonds become converted, are no longer liable to be reborn in a state of suffering, and are assured of final salvation.

8. ’Now there is nothing strange in this, Ananda, that a human being should die, but that as each one does so you should come to the Buddha, and enquire about them in this manner, that is wearisome to the Buddha. I will, therefore, teach you a way of truth, called the Mirror of Truth, which if an elect disciple possess he may himself predict of himself, "Hell is destroyed for me, and rebirth as an animal, or a ghost, or in any place of woe. I am converted, I am no longer liable to be reborn in a state of suffering, and am assured of final salvation."

9. ’What then, Ananda, is this mirror of truth? It is the consciousness that the elect disciple is in this world possessed of faith in the Buddha—believing the Blessed One to be the Holy One, the Fully-enlightened One, Wise, Upright, Happy, World-knowing, Supreme, the Bridler of men’s wayward hearts, the Teacher of gods and men, the Blessed Buddha. And that he (the disciple) is possessed of faith in the Truth—believing the truth to have been proclaimed by the Blessed One, of advantage in this world, passing not away, welcoming all, leading to salvation, and to be attained to by the wise, each one for himself. And that he (the disciple) is possessed of faith in the Order—believing the multitude of the disciples of the Blessed One who are walking in the four stages of the noble eightfold path, the righteous, the upright, the just, the law-abiding—believing this church of the Buddha to be worthy of honour, of hospitality, of gifts, and of reverence; to be the supreme sowing ground of merit for the world; to be possessed of the virtues beloved by the good, virtues unbroken, intact, unspotted, unblemished, virtues which make men truly free, virtues which are praised by the wise, are untarnished by the desire of future life or by the belief in the efficacy of outward acts, and are conductive to high and holy thought.’

10. ’This, Ananda, is the way, the mirror of truth, which if anelect disciple possess he may himself predict of himself: "Hell is destroyed for me; and rebirth as an animal, or a ghost, or in any place of woe. I am converted; I am no longer liable to be reborn in a state of suffering, and am assured of final salvation."

11. There, too, at the Brick Hall at Nadika the Blessed One addressed to the brethren that comprehensive religious discourse on the nature of upright conduct, and of earnest contemplation, and of intelligence.

’Great is the fruit, great the advantage of earnest contemplation when set round with upright conduct. Great is the fruit, great the advantage of intellect when set round with earnest contemplation. The mind set round with intelligence is freed from the great evils, that is to say, from sensuality, from individuality, from delusion, and from ignorance.’

12. Now when the Blessed One had remained as long as he wished at Nadika he addressed Ananda, and said: ’Come, Ananda, let us go on to Vesali.’

’So be it, Lord!’ said Ananda, in assent, to the Blessed One.

Then the Blessed One proceeded, with a great company of the brethren, to Vesali; and there at Vesali the Blessed One stayed at Ambapali’s grove.

13. Now there the Blessed One addressed the brethren, and said: ’Let a brother, O mendicants, be mindful and thoughtful; this is our instruction to you.’

14. ’And how does a brother become mindful?’

’Herein, O mendicants, let a brother, as he dwells in the body, so regard the body that he, being strenuous, thoughtful, and mindful, may, whilst in the world, overcome the grief which arises from bodily craving—while subject to sensations, let him continue so to regard the sensations that he, being strenuous, thoughtful, and mindful, may, whilst in the world, overcome the grief arising from the craving which follows our sensation—and so also as he thinks or reasons or feels let him overcome the grief which arises from the craving due to ideas, or reasoning, or feeling.’

15. ’And how does a brother become thoughtful?’

’He acts, O mendicants, in full presence of mind whatever be may do, in going out and coming in, in looking and watching in bending in his arm or stretching it forth, in wearing his robes or carryinghis bowl, in eating and drinking, in consuming or tasting, in walking or standing or sitting, in sleeping or waking, in talking and in being silent.

’Thus let a brother, O mendicants, be mindful and thoughtful; this is our instruction to you.’

16. Now the courtesan Ambapali heard that the Blessed One had arrived at Vesali, and was staying at her mango grove. And ordering a number of magnificent vehicles to be made ready, she mounted one of them, and proceeded with her train towards her garden. She went in the carriage as far as the ground was passable for carriages; there she alighted; and she proceeded on foot to the place where the Blessed One was, and took her seat respectfully on one side. And when she was thus seated the Blessed One instructed, aroused, incited, and gladdened her with religious discourse.

17. Then she—instructed, aroused, incited, and gladdened with his words—addressed the Blessed One, and said:

’May the Blessed One do me the honour of taking his meal, together with the brethren, at my house to-morrow.’

And the Blessed One gave, by silence, his consent. Then when Ambapali the courtesan saw that the Blessed One had consented, she rose from her seat and bowed down before him, and keeping him on her right hand as she past him, she departed thence.

18. Now the Likkhavis of Vesali heard that the Blessed One had arrived at Vesali, and was staying at Ambapali’s grove. And ordering a number of magnificent carriages to be made ready, they mounted one of them and proceeded with their train to Vesali. Some of them were dark, dark in colour, and wearing dark clothes and ornaments: some of them were fair, fair in colour, and wearing light clothes and ornaments: some of them were red, ruddy in colour, and wearing red clothes and ornaments: some of them were white, pale in colour, and wearing white, clothes and ornaments.

19. And Ambapali drove up again the young Likkhavis, axle to axle, wheel to wheel, and yoke to yoke, and the Likkhavis said to Ambapali the courtesan, ’How is it, Ambapali, that thou drivest up against us thus?’

"My Lords, I have just invited the Blessed One and his brethren for their morrow’s meal,’ said she.

’Ambapali! give up this meal to us for a hundred thousand,’ said they.

’My Lords, were you to offer all Vesali with its subject territory,I would not give up so honourable a feast!’

Then the Likkhavis cast up their hands, exclaiming, ’We are outdone by this mango girl! we are out-reached by this mango girl!’ and they went on to Ambapali’s grove.

20. When the Blessed One saw the Likkhavis approaching in the distance, he addressed the brethren, and said:

’O brethren, let those of the brethren who have never seen the Tavatimsa gods, gaze upon this company of the Likkhavis, behold this company of the Likkhavis, compare this company of the Likkhavis—even as a company of Tavatimsa gods.’

21. And when they had ridden as far as the ground was passable for carriages, the Likkhavis alighted there, and then went on on foot to the place where the Blessed One was, and took their seats respectfully by his side. And when they were thus seated the Blessed One instructed and roused and incited and gladdened them with religious discourse.

22. Then they instructed and roused and incited and gladdened with his words, addressed the Blessed One, and said, ’May the Blessed One do us the honour of taking his meal, together with the brethren, at our house to-morrow?’

’O Likkhavis, I have promised to dine to-morrow with Ambapali the courtesan,’ was the reply.

Then the Likkhavis cast up their hands, exclaiming, ’We are outdone by this mango girl! we are outreached by this mango girl!’ And expressing their thanks and approval of the words of the Blessed One, they rose from their seats and bowed down before the Blessed One, and keeping him on their right hand as they past him, they departed thence.

23. And at the end of the night Ambapali the courtesan made ready in her mansion sweet rice and cakes, and announced the time to the Blessed One, saying, ’The hour, Lord, has come, and the meal is ready!’

And the Blessed One robed himself early in the morning, and took his bowl, and went with the brethren to the place where Ambapali’s dwelling-house was: and when he had come there he seated himself on the seat prepared for him. And Ambapali the courtesan set the sweet rice and cakes before the order, with the Buddha at their head, and waited upon them till they refused more.

24. And when the Blessed One had quite finished his meal, the courtesan had a low stool brought, and sat down at his side, andaddressed the Blessed One, and said: Lord, I present this mansion to the order of mendicants, of which the Buddha is the chief.’ And the Blessed One accepted the gift; and after instructing, and rousing, and inciting, and gladdening her with religious discourse, he rose from his seat and departed thence.

25. While at Ambapali’s mango grove the Blessed One held that comprehensive religious discourse with the disciples on the nature of upright conduct, and of earnest contemplation, and of intelligence.

’Great is the fruit, great the advantage of earnest contemplation when set round with upright conduct. Great is the fruit, great the advantage of intellect when set round with earnest contemplation, The mind set round with intelligence is freed from the great evils, that is to say, from sensuality, from individuality, from delusion, and from ignorance.’

26. Now when the Blessed One had remained as long as he wished at Ambapali’s grove, he addressed Ananda, and said: ’Come, Ananda, let us go on to Beluva.’

’So be it, Lord,’ said Ananda, in assent, to the Blessed One.

Then the Blessed One proceeded, with a great company of the brethren, to Beluva, and there the Blessed One stayed in the village itself.

27. Now the Blessed One there addressed the brethren, and said: ’O mendicants, do you take up your abode round about Vesali, each according to the place where his friends, intimates, and close companions may live, for the rainy season of vassa. I shall enter upon the rainy season here at Beluva.’

’So be it, Lord!’ said those brethren, in assent, to the Blessed One. And they entered upon the rainy season round about Vesali, each according to the place where his friends or intimates or close companions lived: whilst the Blessed One stayed even there at Beluva.

28. Now when the Blessed One had thus entered upon the rainy season, there fell upon him a dire sickness, and sharp pains came upon him, even unto death. But the Blessed One, mindful and selfpossessed, bore them without complaint.

29. Then this thought occurred to the Blessed One, ’It would not be right for me to pass away from existence without addressing the disciples, without taking leave of the order. Let me now, by a strong effort of the will, bend this sickness down again, and keep myhold on life till the allotted time be come.’

30. And the Blessed One, by a strong effort of the will, bent that sickness down again, and kept his hold on life till the time he fixed upon should come. And the sickness abated upon him.

31. Now very soon after the Blessed One began to recover; when he had quite got rid of the sickness, he went out from the monastery on a seat spread out there. And the venerable Ananda went to the place where the Blessed One was, and saluted him, and took a seat respectfully on one side, and addressed the Blessed One, and said: ’I have beheld, Lord, how the Blessed One was in health, and I have beheld how the Blessed One had to suffer. And though at the sight of the sickness of the Blessed One my body became weak as a creeper, and the horizon became dim to me, and my faculties were no longer clear, yet notwithstanding I took some little comfort from the thought that the Blessed One would not pass away from existence until at least he had left instructions as touching the order.’

32. ’What, then, Ananda? Does the order expect that of me? I have preached the truth without making any distinction between exoteric and esoteric doctrine: for in respect of the truths, Ananda, the Tathagata has no such thing as the closed fist of a teacher, who keeps some things back. Surely, Ananda, should there be any one who harbours the thought, "It is I who will lead the brotherhood," or, "The order is dependent upon me," it is he who should lay down instructions in any matter concerning the order. Now the Tathagata, Ananda, thinks not that it is he who should lead the brotherhood, or that the order is dependent upon him. Why then should he leave instructions in any matter concerning the order? I too, O Ananda, am now grown old, and full of years, my journey is drawing to its close, I have reached my sum of days, I am turning eighty years of age; and just as a worn-out cart, Ananda, can only with much additional care be made to move along, so, methinks, the body of the Tathagata can only be kept going with much additional care. It is only, Ananda, when the Tathagata, ceasing to attend to any outward thing, or to experience any sensation, becomes plunged in that devout meditation of heart which is concerned with no material object—it is only then that the body of the Tathagata is at ease.

33. ’Therefore, O Ananda, be ye lamps unto yourselves. Be ye a refuge to yourselves. Betake yourselves to no external refuge. Hold fast to the truth as a lamp. Hold fast as a refuge to the truth.Look not for refuge to any one besides yourselves. And how, Ananda, is a brother to be a lamp unto himself, a refuge to himself, betaking himself to no external refuge, holding fast to the truth as a lamp, holding fast as a refuge to the truth, looking not for refuge to any one besides himself?

34. ’Herein, O Ananda, let a brother, as he dwells in the body, so regard the body that he, being strenuous, thoughtful, and mindful, may, whilst in the world, overcome the grief which arises from bodily craving—while subject to sensations let him continue so to regard the sensations that he, being strenuous, thoughtful, and mindful, may, whilst in the world, overcome the grief which arises from the sensations—and so, also, as he thinks, or reasons, or feels, let him overcome the grief which arises from the craving due to ideas, or to reasoning, or to feeling.

35. ’And whosoever, Ananda, either now or after I am dead, shall be a lamp unto themselves, and a refuge unto themselves, shall betake themselves to no external refuge, but holding fast to the truth as their lamp, and holding fast as their refuge to the truth, shall look not for refuge to any one besides themselves—it is they, Ananda, among my bhikkhus, who shall reach the very topmost Height!—but they must be anxious to learn.’

End of the Second Portion for Recitation.

CHAPTER III.

1. ’Now the Blessed One robed himself early in the morning, and taking his bowl in the robe, went into Vesali for alms, and when he returned he sat down on the seat prepared for him, and after he had finished eating the rice he addressed the venerable Ananda, and said: ’Take up the mat, Ananda; I will go to spend the day at the Kapala Ketiya.’

’So be it, Lord!’ said the venerable Ananda, in assent, to the Blessed One. And taking up the mat he followed step for step behind the Blessed One.

2. So the Blessed One proceeded to the Kapala Ketiya, and when he had come there he sat down on the mat spread out for him, and the venerable Ananda took his seat respectfully beside him. Then the Blessed One addressed the venerable Ananda, and said: ’How delightful a spot, Ananda, is Vesali, and the Udena Ketiya, and theGotamaka Ketiya, and the Sattambaka Ketiya, and the Kapala Ketiya.

3. ’Ananda! whosoever has thought out, developed, practised, accumulated, and ascended to the very heights of the four paths to Iddhi, and so mastered them as to be able to use them as a means of (mental) advancement, and as a basis for edification, he, should he desire it, could remain in the same birth for a kalpa, or for that portion of the kalpa which had yet to run. Now the Tathagata has thought them out, and thoroughly practised and developed them [in all respects as just more fully described], and he could, therefore, should he desire it, live on yet for a kalpa, or for that portion of the kalpa which has yet to run.’

4. But even though a suggestion so evident and a hint so dear were thus given by the Blessed One, the venerable Ananda was incapable of comprehending them; and he besought not the Blessed One, saying, ’Vouchsafe, Lord, to remain during the kalpa! Live on through the kalpa, O Blessed One! for the good and the happiness of the great multitudes, out of pity for the world, for the good and the gain and the weal of gods and men!’ So far was his heart possessed by the Evil One.

5. A second and a third time did the Blessed One [say the same thing, and a second and a third time was Ananda’s heart thus hardened].

6. Now the Blessed One addressed the venerable Ananda, and said: ’You may leave me, Ananda, awhile, and do whatever seemeth to thee fit.’

’So be it, Lord!’ said the venerable Ananda, in assent, to the Blessed, and rising from his seat he saluted the Blessed One, and passing him on the right, sat down at the foot of a certain tree not far off thence.

7. Now not long after the venerable Ananda had been gone, Mara, the Evil One, approached the Blessed One, and stood beside him. And so standing there, he addressed the Blessed One in these words:

’Pass away now, Lord, from existence; let the Blessed One now die. Now is the time for the Blessed One to pass away—even according to the word which the Blessed One spoke when he said: "I shall not die, O Evil One! until the brethren and sisters of the order, and until the lay-disciples of either sex shall have become true hearers, wise and well-trained, ready and learned, versed in the Scriptures,fulfilling all the greater and the lesser duties, correct in life, walking according to the precepts—until they, having thus themselves learned the doctrine, shall be able to tell others of it, preach it, make it known, establish it, open it, minutely explain it and make it clear—until they, when others start vain doctrine, shall be able by the truth to vanquish and refute it, and so to spread the wonder-working truth abroad!"’

8. ’And now, Lord, the brethren and sisters of the order and the lay-disciples of either sex have become [all this], are able to do [all this]. Pass away now therefore, Lord, from existence; let the Blessed One now die! The time has come for the Blessed One to pass away—even according to the word which he spake when he said, "I shall not die, O Evil One! until this pure religion of mine shall have become successful, prosperous, widespread, and popular in all its full extent—until, in a word, it shall have been well proclaimed to men." And now, Lord, this pure religion of thine has become [all this]. Pass away now therefore, Lord, from existence; let the Blessed One now die! The time has come for the Blessed One to pass away!’

9. And when he had thus spoken, the Blessed One addressed Mara, the Evil One, and said: ’O Evil One! make thyself happy, the final extinction of the Tathagata shall take place before long. At the end of three months from this time the Tathagata will die!’

10. Thus the Blessed One while at the Kapala Ketiya deliberately and consciously rejected the rest of his allotted sum of life. And on his so rejecting it there arose a mighty earthquake, awful and terrible, and the thunders of heaven burst forth. And when the Blessed One beheld this, he broke out at that time into this hymn of exultation:

"His sum of life the sage renounced,
The cause of life immeasurable or small;
With inward joy and calm, he broke,
Like coat of mail, his life’s own cause!’

11. Now the following thought occurred to the venerable Ananda: ’Wonderful indeed and marvelous is it that this mighty earthquake should arise, awful and terrible, and that the thunders of heaven should burst forth! What may be the proximate, what the remote cause of the appearance of this earthquake?’

12. Then the venerable Ananda went up to the place where the Blessed One was, and did obeisance to the Blessed One, and seated himself respectfully at one side, and said: ’Wonderful indeed andmarvellous is it that this mighty earthquake should arise, awful and terrible, and that the thunders of heaven should burst forth! What may be the proximate, what the remote cause of the appearance of this earthquake?’

13. ’Eight are the proximate, eight the remote causes, Ananda, for the appearance of a mighty earthquake. What are the eight? This great earth, Ananda, is established on water, the water, on wind, and the wind rests upon space. And at such a time, Ananda, as the mighty winds blow, the waters are shaken by the mighty winds as they blow, and by the moving water the earth is shaken. These are the first causes, proximate and remote, of the appearance of a mighty earthquake.

14. ’Again, Ananda, a Samana or a Brahman of great (intellectual) power, and who has the feelings of his heart well under his control; or a god or fairy (devata) of great might and power,—when such a one by intense meditation of the finite idea of earth or the infinite idea of water (has succeeded in realising the comparative value of things) he can make this earth move and tremble and be shaken violently. These are the second causes, proximate or remote, of the appearance of a mighty earthquake.

15. ’Again, Ananda, when a Bodhisatta consciously and deliberately leaves his temporary form in the heaven of delight and descends into his mother’s womb, then is this earth made to quake and tremble and is shaken violently. These are the third causes, proximate or remote, of the appearance of a mighty earthquake.

16. ’Again, Ananda, when a Bodhisatta deliberately and consciously quits his mother’s womb, then the earth quakes and trembles and is shaken violently. This is the fourth cause, proximate and remote, of the appearance of a mighty earthquake.

17. ’Again, Ananda, when a Tathagata arrives at the supreme and perfect enlightenment, then this earth quakes and trembles and is shaken violently. This is the fifth cause, proximate and remote, of the appearance of a mighty earthquake.

18. ’Again, Ananda, when a Tathagata founds the sublime kingdom of righteousness, then this earth quakes and trembles and is shaken violently. This is the sixth cause, proximate and remote, of the appearance of a mighty earthquake.

19. ’Again, Ananda, when a Tathagata consciously and deliberately rejects the remainder of his life, then this earth quakes and trembles and is shaken violently. This is the seventh cause,proximate and remote, of the appearance of, a mighty earthquake.

20. ’Again, Ananda, when a Tathagata passes entirely away with that utter passing away in which nothing whatever is left behind, then this earth quakes and trembles and is shaken violently. This is the eighth cause, proximate and remote, of the appearance of a mighty earthquake.

21. ’Now of eight kinds, Ananda, are these assemblies. Which are the eight? Assemblies of nobles, Brahmanas, householders, and Samanas, and the angel hosts of the Guardian Angels, the Great Thirty-Three, Mara, and Brahma.

22. ’Now I call to mind, Ananda, how when I used to enter into an assembly of many hundred nobles, before I had seated myself there or talked to them or started a conversation with them, I used to become in colour like unto their colour, and in voice like unto their voice. Then with religious discourse I used to instruct, incite, and quicken them, and fill them with gladness. But they knew me not when I spoke, and would say, "Who may this be who thus speaks? a man or a god?" Then having instructed, incited, quickened, and gladdened them with religious discourse, I would vanish away. But they knew me not even when I vanished away; and would say, "Who may this be who has thus vanished away? a man or a god?"’

23. [And in the same words the Blessed One spake of how he had been used to enter into assemblies of each of the other of the eight kinds, and of how he had not been made known to them either in speaking or in vanishing away.] ’Now these, Ananda, are the eight assemblies.’

24. ’Now these, Ananda, are the eight positions of mastery [over the delusion arising from the apparent permanence of external things]. What are the eight?

25. ’When a man having subjectively the idea of form sees externally forms which are finite, and pleasant or unpleasant to the sight, and having mastered them, is conscious that he knows and sees—this is the first position of mastery.

26. ’When a man having subjectively the idea of form sees externally forms which are boundless, and pleasant or unpleasant to the sight, and having mastered them, is conscious that he knows and sees—this is the second position of mastery.

27. ’When a man without the subjective idea of form seesexternally forms which are finite, and pleasant or unpleasant to the sight, and having mastered them, is conscious that he knows and sees—this is the third position of mastery.

28. ’When a man without the subjective idea of form sees externally forms which are boundless, and pleasant or unpleasant to the sight, and having mastered them, is conscious that he knows and sees—this is the fourth position of mastery.

29. ’When a man without the subjective idea of form sees externally forms that are blue in colour, blue in appearance, and reflecting blue,—just, for instance, as the Umma flower is blue in colour, blue in appearance, and reflecting blue; or, again, as that fine muslin of Benares which, on whichever side you look at it, is blue in colour, blue in appearance, and reflecting blue,—when a man without the subjective idea of form sees externally forms which, just in that way, are blue, blue in colour, blue in appearance, and reflecting blue, and having mastered them, is conscious that he knows and sees—that is the fifth position of mastery.’

30.-32. [The sixth, seventh, and eighth positions of mastery are explained in words identical with those used to explain the fifth; save that yellow, red, and white are respectively substituted throughout for blue; and the Kanikara flower, the Bandhu-givaka flower, and the morning star are respectively substituted for the Umma flower, as the first of the two objects given as examples.]

33. ’Now these stages of deliverance, Ananda [from the hindrance to thought arising from the sensations and ideas due to external forms], are eight in number. Which are the eigth?

34. ’A man possessed with the idea of form sees forms—this is the first stage of deliverance.

35. ’Without the subjective idea of form, he sees forms externally—this is the second stage of deliverance.

36. ’With the thought "it is well," he becomes intent (upon what he sees)—this is the third stage of deliverance.

37. ’By passing quite beyond all idea of form, by putting an end to all idea of resistance, by paying no attention to the idea of distinction, he, thinking "it is all infinite space," reaches (mentally) and remains in the state of mind in which the idea of the infinity of space is the only idea that is present—this is the fourth stage of deliverance.

38. ’By passing quite beyond all idea of space being the infinite basis, he, thinking "it is all infinite reason," reaches (mentally) andremains in the state of mind to which the infinity of reason is alone present—this is the fifth stage of deliverance.

39. ’By passing quite beyond the mere consciousness of the infinity of reason, he, thinking "nothing at all exists," reaches (mentally) and remains in the state of mind to which nothing at all is specially present—this is the sixth stage of deliverance.

40. ’By passing quite beyond all idea of nothingness he reaches (mentally) and remains in the state of mind to which neither ideas nor the absence of ideas are specially present—this is the seventh stage of deliverance.

41. ’By passing quite beyond the state of "neither ideas nor the absence of ideas" he reaches (mentally) and remains in the state of mind in which both sensations and ideas have ceased to be—this is the eighth stage of deliverance.

42. ’Now these, Ananda, are the eight stages of deliverance.

43. ’On one occasion, Ananda, I was resting under the shepherd’s Nigrodha tree on the bank of the river Nerangara immediately after having reached the great enlightenment. Then Mara, the Evil One, came, Ananda, to the place where I was, and standing beside me he addressed me in the words: "Pass away now, Lord, from existence! Let the Blessed One now die! Now is the time for the Blessed One to pass away!"

44. ’And when he had thus spoken, Ananda, I addressed Mara, the Evil One, and said: "I shall not die, O Evil One! until not only the brethren and sisters of the order, but also the lay-disciples of either sex shall have become true hearers, wise and well-trained, ready and learned, versed in the Scriptures, fulfilling all the greater and the lesser duties, correct in life, walking according to the precepts—until they, having thus themselves learned the doctrine, shall be able to tell others of it, preach it, make it known, establish it, open it, minutely explain it and make it clear—until they, when others start vain doctrine, shall be able by the truth to vanquish and refute it, and so to spread the wonder-working truth abroad!

45. "’I shall not die until this pure religion of mine shall have become successful, prosperous, wide-spread, and popular in all its full extent—until, in a word, it shall have been well proclaimed among men!"

46. ’And now again to-day, Ananda, at the Kapala Ketiya, Mara, the Evil One, came to the place where I was, and standing beside meaddressed me [in the same words].

47. ’And when he had thus spoken, Ananda, I answered him and said: "Make thyself happy, the final extinction of the Tathagata shall take place before long. At the end of three months from this time the Tathagata will die!"

48. ’Thus, Ananda, the Tathagata has now to-day at the Kapala Ketiya consciously and deliberately rejected the rest of his allotted term of life.’

49. And when he had thus spoken the venerable Ananda addressed the Blessed One, and said: ’Vouchsafe, Lord, to remain during the kalpa! live on through the kalpa, O Blessed One! for the good and the happiness of the great multitudes, out of pity for the world, for the good and the gain and the weal of gods and men!’

50. ’Enough now, Ananda, beseech not the Tathagata!’ was the reply. ’The time for making such request is past.’

51. And again, the second time, the venerable Ananda besought the Blessed One [in the same words. And he received from the Blessed One the same reply].

52. And again, the third time, the venerable Ananda besought the Blessed One [in the same words].

53. ’Hast thou faith, Ananda, in the wisdom of the Tathagata?’

’Even so, Lord!’

’Now why, then, Ananda, dost thou trouble the Tathagata even until the third time?’

54. ’From his own mouth have I heard from the Blessed One, from his own mouth have I received this saying, "Whosoever has thought out, Ananda, and developed, practised, accumulated, and ascended to the very heights of the four paths to saintship, and so mastered them as to be able to use them as a means of (mental) advancement, and as a basis for edification—he, should he desire it, could remain in the same birth for a kalpa, or for that portion of a kalpa which has yet to run." Now the Tathagata has thought out and thoroughly practised them [in all respects as just now fully described], and might, should he desire it, remain alive for a kalpa, or for that portion of a kalpa which has yet to run.’

55. ’Hast thou faith, Ananda?’

’Even so, Lord!’

’Then, O Ananda, thine is the fault, thine is the offence—in that when a suggestion so evident and a hint so clear were thus given thee by the Tathagata, thou wast yet incapable of comprehending them, andthou besoughtest not the Tathagata, saying, "Vouchsafe, Lord, to remain during the kalpa. Live on, O Blessed One! through the kalpa for the good and the happiness of the great multitudes, out of pity for the world, for the good and the gain and the weal of gods and men." If thou shouldst then have so besought the Tathagata, the Tathagata might have rejected the appeal even to the second time, but the third time he would have granted it. Thine, therefore, O Ananda, is the fault, thine is the offence!’

56. "On one occasion, Ananda, I was dwelling at Ragagaha, on the hill called the Vulture’s Peak. Now there, Ananda, I spoke to thee, and said: "How pleasant a spot, Ananda, is Ragagaha; how pleasant is this Vulture’s Peak. Whosoever has thought out, Ananda, and developed, practised, accumulated, and ascended to the very heights of the four paths to saintship, and so mastered them as to be able to use them as a means of (mental) advancement, and as a basis for edification—he, should he desire it, could remain in the same birth for a kalpa, or for that portion of a kalpa which has yet to run. But even when a suggestion so evident and a hint so clear were thus given thee by the Tathagata, thou wast yet incapable of comprehending them, and thou besoughtest not the Tathagata, saying, ’Vouchsafe, Lord, to remain during the kalpa. Live on, O Blessed One! through the kalpa for the good and the happiness of the great multitudes, out of pity for the world, for the good and the gain and the weal of gods and men.’ If thou shouldst then have so besought the Tathagata, the Tathagata might have rejected the appeal even to the second time, but the third time he would have granted it. Thine, therefore, O Ananda, is the fault, thine is the offence!"

57. ’On one occasion, Ananda, I was dwelling at that same Ragagaha in the Banyan Grove—on one occasion at that same Ragagaha at the Robbers’ Cliff—on one occasion at that same Ragagaha in the Sattapanni cave on the slope of Mount Vebhara:—on one occasion at that same Ragagaha at the Black Rock on the slope of Mount Isigili—on one occasion at that same Ragagaha in the Sitavana Grove in the mountain cave Sappasondika—on one occasion at that same Ragagaha in the Tapoda Grove—on one occasion at that same Ragagaha in the Bambu Grove in the Squirrels’ Feeding Ground—on one occasion at that same Ragagaha in Givaka’s Mango Grove—on one occasion at that same Ragagaha in the Deer Forest at Maddakukkhi.’

58. ’Now there too, Ananda, I spoke to thee, and said: "How pleasant, Ananda, is Ragagaha; how pleasant the Vulture’s Peak;how pleasant the Banyan tree of Gotama; how pleasant the Robbers’ Cliff; how pleasant the Sattapanni cave on the slope of Mount Vebhara; how pleasant the Black Rock on the slope of Mount Isigili; how pleasant the mountain cave Sappasonlika in the Sitavana Grove; how pleasant the Tapoda Grove; how pleasant the Squirrels’ Feeding Ground in the Bambu Grove; how pleasant Givaka’s Mango Grove; how pleasant the Deer Forest at Maddakukkhi!

59. ’"Whosoever, Ananda has thought out and developed, practised, accumulated, and ascended to the very heights of the four paths to saintship, and so mastered them as to be able to use them as a means of (mental) advancement and as a basis for edification—he, should he desire it, could remain in the same birth for a kalpa, or for that portion of a kalpa which has yet to run." Now the Tathagata has thought out and thoroughly practised them [in all respects as just now fully described], and might, should he desire it, remain alive for a kalpa, or for that portion of a kalpa which has yet to run.’

60. ’On one occasion, Ananda, I was residing here at Vesali at the Udena Ketiya. And there too, Ananda, I spoke to thee, and said: "How pleasant, Ananda, is Vesali; how pleasant the Udena Ketiya. Whosoever, Ananda, has thought out and developed, practised, accumulated, and ascended to the very heights of the four paths to saintship, and so mastered them as to be able to use them as a means of (mental) advancement and as a basis for edification—he, should he desire it, could remain in the same birth for a kalpa, or for that portion of a kalpa which has yet to run." Now the Tathagata has thought out and thoroughly practised them [in all respects as just now fully described], and might, should he desire it, remain alive for a kalpa, or for that portion of a kalpa which has yet to run.’

61. ’On one occasion, Ananda, I was dwelling here at Vesali at the Gotamaka Ketiya—on one occasion here at Vesali at the Sattamba Ketiya—on one occasion here at Vesali at the Bahuputta Ketiya—on one occasion here at Vesali at the Sarandada Ketiya [and on each occasion I spoke to thee, Ananda, in the same words].

62. ’And now to-day, Ananda, at the Kapala Ketiya, I spoke to thee, and said: "How pleasant, Ananda, is Vesali; how pleasant the Udena Ketiya; how pleasant the Gotamaka Ketiya; how pleasant the Sattamba Ketiya; how pleasant the Bahuputta Ketiya; how pleasant the Sarandada Ketiya. Whosoever, Ananda, has thought out and developed, practised, accumulated, and ascended to the very heights of the four paths to saintship, and so mastered them as to be able touse them as a means of (mental) advancement, and as a basis for edification—he, should he desire it, could remain in the same birth for a kalpa, or for that portion of a kalpa which has yet to run. Now the Tathagata has thought and thoroughly practised them [in all respects as just now fully described], and might, should he desire it, remain alive for a kalpa, or for that portion of a kalpa which has yet to run."

63. ’But now, Ananda, have I not formerly declared to you that it is in the very nature of all things, near and dear unto us, that we must divide ourselves from them, leave them, sever ourselves from them? How then, Ananda, can this be possible—whereas anything whatever born, brought into being, and organised, contains within itself the inherent necessity of dissolution—how then can this be possible that such a being should not be dissolved? No such condition can exist! And this mortal being, Ananda, has been relinquished, cast away, renounced, rejected, and abandoned by the Tathagata. The remaining sum of life has been surrendered by him. Verily, the word has gone forth from the Tathagata, saying, "The final extinction of the Tathagata shall take place before long. At the end of three months from this time the Tathagata will die!" That the Tathagata for the sake of living should repent him again of that saying—this can no wise be!’

64. ’Come, Ananda, let us go to the Kutagara Hall, to the Mahavana.’

’Even so, Lord!’ said the venerable Ananda, in assent, to the Blessed One.

Then the Blessed One proceeded, with Ananda with him, to the Mahavana to the Kutagara Hall; and when he had arrived there he addressed the venerable Ananda, and said:

’Go now, Ananda, and assemble in the Service Hall such of the brethren as reside in the neighbourhood of Vesali.’

’Even so, Lord,’ said the venerable Ananda, in assent, to the Blessed One. And when he had assembled in the Service Hall such of the brethren as resided in the neighbourhood of Vesali, he went to the Blessed One and saluted him and stood beside him. And standing beside him, he addressed the Blessed One, and said:

’Lord! the assembly of the brethren has met together. Let the Blessed One do even as seemeth to him fit.’

65. Then the Blessed One proceeded to the Service Hall, and sat down there on the mat spread out for him. And when he was seated the Blessed One addressed the brethren, and said:

’Therefore, O brethren—ye to whom the truths I have perceived have been made known by me—having thoroughly made yourselves masters of them, practise them, meditate upon them, and spread them abroad; in order that pure religion may last long and be perpetuated, in order that it may continue to be for the good and happiness of the great multitudes, out of pity for the world, to the good and the gain and the weal of gods and men!

’Which then, O brethren, are the truths which, when I had perceived, I made known to you, which, when you have mastered it behoves you to practise, meditate upon, and spread abroad, in order that pure religion may last long and be perpetuated, in order that it may continue to be for the good and the happiness of the great multitudes, out of pity for the world, to the good and the gain and the weal of gods and men?’

They are these:

The four earnest meditations.
The fourfold great struggle against sin.
The four roads to saintship.
The five moral powers.
The five organs of spiritual sense.
The seven kinds of wisdom, and
The noble eightfold path.

These, O brethren, are the truths which, when I had perceived, I made known to you, which, when you have mastered it behoves you to practise, meditate upon, and spread abroad, in order that pure religion may last long and be perpetuated, in order that it may continue to be for the good and the happiness of the great multitudes, out of pity for the world, to the good and the gain and the weal of gods and men!

66. And the Blessed One exhorted the brethren, and said:

’Behold now, O brethren, I exhort you, saying, "All component things must grow old. Work out your salvation with diligence. The final extinction of the Tathagata will take place before long. At the end of three months from this time the Tathagata will die!"

’My age is now full ripe, my life draws to its close:
I leave you, I depart, relying on myself alone!
Be earnest then, O brethren! holy, full of thought!
Be steadfast in resolve! Keep watch o’er your own hearts!
Who wearies not, but holds fast to this truth and law,
Shall cross this sea of life, shall make an end of grief.’

End of the Third Portion for Recitation.

CHAPTER IV.

1. Now the Blessed One early in the morning robed himself, and taking his bowl, entered Vesali for alms: and when he had passed through Vesali, and had eaten his meal and was returning from his alms-seeking he gazed at Vesali with an elephant look and addressed the venerable Ananda, and said: ’This will be the last time, Ananda, that the Tathagata will behold Vesali. Come, Ananda, let us go on to Bhanda-gama.’

’Even so, Lord!’ said the venerable Ananda, in assent, to the Blessed One.

And the Blessed One proceeded with a great company of the brethren to Bhanda-gama; and there the Blessed One stayed in the village itself.

2. There the Blessed One addressed the brethren, and said: ’It is through not understanding and grasping four truths, O brethren, that we have had to run so long, to wander so long in this weary path of transmigration—both you and I.’

’And what are these four? The noble conduct of life, the noble earnestness in meditation, the noble kind of wisdom, and the noble salvation of freedom. But when noble conduct is realised and known, when noble meditation is realised and known, when noble wisdom is realised and known, when noble freedom is realised and known—then is the craving for existence rooted out, that which leads to renewed existence is destroyed, and there is no more birth.’

3. Thus spake the Blessed One; and when the Happy One had thus spoken, then again the teacher said:

’Righteousness, earnest thought, wisdom, and freedom sublime—
These are the truths realised by Gotama, far-renowned.
Knowing them, he, the knower, proclaimed the truth to the brethren.
The master with eye divine, the quencher of griefs, must die!’

4. There too, while staying at Bhanda-gama, the Blessed One held that comprehensive religious discourse with the brethren on thenature of upright conduct, and of earnest contemplation, and of intelligence. ’Great is the fruit, great the advantage of earnest contemplation when set round with upright conduct. Great is the fruit, great the advantage of intellect when set round with earnest contemplation. The mind set round with intelligence is freed from the great evils—that is to say, from sensuality, from individuality, from delusion, and from ignorance.’

5. Now when the Blessed One had remained at Bhanda-gama as long as he desired, he addressed the venerable Ananda, and said: ’Come, Ananda, let us go on to Hatthi-gama.’

’Even so, Lord!’ said Ananda, in assent, to the Blessed One.

Then the Blessed One proceeded with a great company of the brethren to Hatthi-gama.

6. [And in similar words it is then related how the Blessed One went on to Amba-gama, to Gambugama, and to Bhogo-nagara.]

7. Now there at Bhoga-nagara the Blessed One stayed at the Ananda Ketiya.

There the Blessed One addressed the brethren, and said: ’I will teach you, O brethren, these four Great References. Listen thereto, and give good heed, and I will speak.’

’Even so, Lord!’ said the brethren, in assent, to the Blessed One, and the Blessed One spoke as follows:

8. ’In the first place, brethren, a brother may say thus: "From the mouth of the Blessed One himself have I heard, from his own mouth have I received it. This is the truth, this the law, this the teaching of the Master." The word spoken, brethren, by that brother should neither be received with praise nor treated with scorn. Without praise and without scorn every word and syllable should be carefully understood, and then put beside the scripture and compared with the rules of the order. If when so compared they do not harmonise with the scripture, and do not fit in with the rules of the order, then you may come to the conclusion, "Verily, this is not the word of the Blessed One, and has been wrongly grasped by that brother?" Therefore, brethren, you should reject it. But if they harmonise with the rules of the order, then you may come to the conclusion, "Verily, this is the word of the Blessed One, and has been well grasped by that brother." This, brethren, you should receive as the first Great Reference.

9. ’Again, brethren, a brother may say thus: "In such and such a dwelling-place there is a company of the brethren with their elders and leaders. From the mouth of that company have I heard, face to face have I received it. This is the truth, this the law, this the teaching of the Master." The word spoken, brethren, by that brother should neither be received with praise nor treated with scorn. Without praise and without scorn every word and syllable should be carefully understood, and then put beside the scripture and compared with the rules of the order. If when so compared they do not harmonise with the scripture, and do not fit in with the rules of the order, then you may come to the conclusion, "Verily, this is not the word of the Blessed One, and has been wrongly grasped by that company of the brethren." Therefore, brethren, you should reject it. But if they harmonise with the scripture and fit in with the rules of the order, then you may come to the conclusion, "Verily, this is the word of the Blessed One, and has been well grasped by that company of the brethren." This, brethren, you should receive as the second Great Reference.

10. ’Again, brethren, a brother may say thus: "In such and such a dwelling-place there are dwelling many elders of the order, deeply read, holding the faith as handed down by tradition, versed in the truths, versed in the regulations of the order, versed in the summaries of the doctrines and the law. From the mouth of those elders have I heard, from their mouth have I received it. This is the truth, this the law, this the teaching of the Master." The word spoken, brethren, by that brother should neither be received with praise nor treated with scorn. Without praise and without scorn every word and syllable should be carefully understood, and then put beside the scripture and compared with the rules of the order. If when so compared they do not harmonise with the scripture, and do not fit in with the rules of the order, then you may come to the conclusion, "Verily, this is not the word of the Blessed One, and has been wrongly grasped by those elders." Therefore, brethren, you should reject it. But if they harmonise with the scripture and fit in with the rules of the order, then you may come to the conclusion, "Verily, this is the word of the Blessed One, and has been well grasped by those elders." This, brethren, you should receive as the third Great Reference.

11. ’Again, brethren, a brother may say, "In such and such a dwelling-place there is there living a brother, deeply read, holding the faith as handed down by tradition, versed in the truths, versed inthe regulations of the order, versed in the summaries of the doctrines and the law. From the mouth of that elder have I heard, from his mouth have I received it. This is the truth, this the law, this the teaching of the Master." The word spoken, brethren, by that brother should neither be received with praise nor treated with scorn. Without praise and without scorn every word and syllable should be carefully understood, and then put beside the scripture and compared with the rules of the order. If when so compared they do not harmonise with the scripture, and do not fit in with the rules of the order, then you may come to the conclusion, "Verily, this is not the word of the Blessed One, and has been wrongly grasped by that brother." Therefore, brethren, you should reject it. But if they harmonise with the scripture and fit in with the rules of the order, then you may come to the conclusion, "Verily, this is the word of the Blessed One, and has been well grasped by that brother." This, brethren, you should receive as the fourth Great Reference.’

12. There too, the Blessed One held that comprehensive religious talk with the brethren on the nature of upright conduct, and of earnest contemplation, and of intelligence. ’Great is the fruit, great the advantage of earnest contemplation when set round with upright conduct. Great is the fruit, great the advantage of intellect when set round with earnest contemplation. The mind set round with intelligence is freed from the great evils—that is to say, from sensuality, from individuality, from delusion, and from ignorance.’

13. Now when the Blessed One had remained as long as he desired at Bhoga-gama, he addressed the venerable Ananda, and said: ’Come, Ananda, let us go on to Pava.’

’Even so, Lord!’ said the venerable Ananda, in assent, to the Blessed One. And the Blessed One proceeded with a great company of the brethren to Pava.

And there at Pava the Blessed One stayed at the Mango Grove of Kunda, who was by family a smith.

14. Now Kunda, the worker in metals, heard that the Blessed One had come to Pava, and was staying there in his Mango Grove.

And Kunda, the worker in metals, went to the place where the Blessed One was, and saluting him took his seat respectfully on one side. And when he was thus seated, the Blessed One instructed,aroused, incited, and gladdened him with religious discourse.

15. Then he, instructed, aroused, incited, and gladdened by the religious discourse, addressed the Blessed One and said: ’May the Blessed One do me the honour of taking his meal, together with the brethren, at my house to-morrow.’

And the Blessed One signified, by silence, his consent.

16. Then seeing that the Blessed One had consented, Kunda, the worker in metals, rose from his seat and bowed down before the Blessed One, and keeping him on his right hand as he past him, departed thence.

17. Now at the end of the night, Kunda, the worker in metals, made ready in his dwelling-place sweet rice and cakes, and a quantity of dried boar’s flesh. And he announced the hour to the Blessed One, saying, ’The hour, Lord, has come, and the meal is ready.’

18. And the Blessed One robed himself early in the morning, and taking his bowl, went with the brethren to the dwelling-place of Kunda, the worker in metals. When he had come thither he seated himself on the seat prepared for him. And when he was seated he addressed Kunda, the worker in metals, and said: ’As to the dried boar’s flesh you have made ready, serve me with it, Kunda; and as to the other food, the sweet rice and cakes, serve the brethren with it.’

’Even so, Lord!’ said Kunda, the worker in metals, in assent, to the Blessed. One. And the dried boar’s flesh he had made ready he served to the Blessed One; whilst the other food, the sweet rice and cakes, he served to the members of the order.

19. Now the Blessed One addressed Kunda, the worker in metals, and said: ’Whatever dried boar’s flesh, Kunda, is left over to thee, that bury in a hole. I see no one, Kunda, on earth nor in Mara’s heaven, nor in Brahma’s heaven, no one among Samanas and Brahmanas, among gods and men, by whom, when he has eaten it, that food can be assimilated, save by the Tathagata.’

’Even so, Lord!’ said Kunda, the worker in metals, in assent, to the Blessed One. And whatever dried boar’s flesh remained over, that he buried in a hole.

20. And he went to the place where the Blessed One was; and when he had come there, took his seat respectfully on one side. And when he was seated, the Blessed One instructed and aroused and incited and gladdened Kunda, the worker in metals, with religious discourse. And the Blessed One then rose from his seat and departedthence.

21. Now when the Blessed One had eaten the food prepared by Kunda, the worker in metal, there fell upon him a dire sickness, the disease of dysentery, and sharp pain came upon him, even unto death. But the Blessed One, mindful and selfpossessed, bore it without complaint.

22. And the Blessed One addressed the venerable Ananda, and said: ’Come, Ananda, let us go on to Kusinara.’

’Even so, Lord!’ said the venerable Ananda, in assent, to the Blessed One.

23. When he had eaten Kunda’s food,
The copper-smith’s—thus have I heard—
He bore with fortitude the pain,
The sharp pain even unto death!
And from the dried flesh of the boar, as soon as he had eaten it,
There fell upon the teacher sickness dire,
Then after nature was relieved the Blessed One announced and said:
’I now am going on to Kusinara.’

24. Now the Blessed One went aside from the path to the foot of a certain tree; and when he had come there he addressed the venerable Ananda, and said: ’Fold, I pray you, Ananda, the robe; and spread it out for me. I am weary, Ananda, and must rest awhile!’

’Even so, Lord!’ said the venerable Ananda, in assent, to the Blessed One, and spread out the robe folded fourfold.

25. And the Blessed One seated himself on the seat prepared for him; and when he was seated, he addressed the venerable Ananda, and said: ’Fetch me, I pray you, Ananda, some water. I am thirsty, Ananda, and would drink.’

26. When he had thus spoken, the venerable Ananda said to the Blessed One: ’But just now, Lord, about five hundred carts have gone over. That water stirred up by the wheels has become shallow and flows fouled and turbid. This river Kakuttha, Lord, not far off, is clear and pleasant, cool and transparent, easy to get down into, and delightful. There the Blessed One may both drink the water, and cool his limbs.’

27. Again the second time the Blessed One addressed thevenerable Ananda, and said: ’Fetch me, I pray you, Ananda, some water. I am thirsty, Ananda, and would drink.’

28. And again the second time the venerable Ananda said to the Blessed One: ’But just now, Lord, about five hundred carts have gone over.’ That water stirred up by the wheels has become shallow and flows fouled and turbid. This river Kakuttha, Lord, not far off, is clear and pleasant, cool and transparent, easy to get down into, and delightful. There the Blessed One may both drink the water, and cool his limbs.’

29. Again the third time the Blessed One addressed the venerable Ananda, and said: ’Fetch me, I pray you, Ananda, some water. I am thirsty, Ananda, and would drink.’

30. ’Even so, Lord!’ said the venerable Ananda, in assent, to the Blessed One; and taking a bowl he went down to the streamlet. And lo! the streamlet which, stirred up by the wheels, was but just now become shallow, and was flowing fouled and turbid, had begun, when the venerable Ananda came up to it, to flow clear and bright and free from all turbidity.

31. Then Ananda thought: ’How wonderful, how marvellous is the great might and power of the Tathagata! For this streamlet which, stirred up by the wheels, was but just now become shallow and flowing foul and turbid, now, as I come up to it, is flowing clear and bright and free from all turbidity.’

32. And taking water in the bowl he returned towards the Blessed One; and when he had come where the Blessed One was he said to him: ’How wonderful, how marvellous is the great might and power of Tathagata! For this streamlet which, stirred up by the wheels, was just now become shallow and flowing foul and turbid, now, as I come up to it, is flowing clear and bright and free from all turbidity. Let the Blessed One drink the water! Let the Happy One drink the water!’

Then the Blessed One drank of the water.

33. Now at that time a man named Pukkusa, a young Mallian, a disciple of Alara Kalama’s, was passing along the high road from Kusinara to Pava.

34. And Pukkusa, the young Mallian, saw the Blessed One seated at the foot of a tree. On seeing him, he went up to the place where the Blessed One was, and when he had come there he saluted the Blessed One, and took his rest respectfully on one side. Andwhen he was seated Pukkusa, the young Mallian, said to the Blessed One: ’How wonderful a thing is it, Lord! and how marvellous, that those who, have gone forth out of the world should pass their time in a state of mind so calm!’

35. ’Formerly, Lord, Alara Kalama was once walking along the high road; and leaving the road he sat himself down under a certain tree to rest during the heat of the day. Now, Lord, five hundred carts passed by one after the other, each close to Alara Kalama. And a certain man, who was following close behind that caravan of carts, went up to the place where Alara Kalama was, and when he was come there he spake as follows to Alara Kalama:

’"But, Lord, did you see those five hundred carts go by?"

’"No, indeed, sir, I saw them not."

’"But, Lord, did you hear the sound of them?"

’"No, indeed, sir, I heard not their sound."

’"But, Lord, were you then asleep?"

’"No, sir, I was not asleep."

’"But, Lord, were you then conscious."

’"Yes, ’I was conscious, sir."

’"So that you, Lord, though you were both conscious and awake, neither saw, nor heard the sound of five hundred carts passing by, one after the other, and each dose to you. Why, Lord, even your robe was sprinkled over with the dust of them!"

’"It is even so, sir."

36. ’Then thought that man: "How wonderful a thing is it, and how marvellous, that those who have gone forth out of the world should pass their time in a state of mind so calm! So much so that a man though being both conscious and awake, neither sees, nor hears the sound of five hundred carts passing by, one after the other, and each close to him."

’And after giving utterance to his deep faith in Alara Kalama, he departed thence.’

37. ’Now what think you, Pukkusa, which is the more difficult thing either to do or to meet with—that a man being conscious and awake should neither see, nor hear the sound of five hundred carts passing by, one after the other, close to him,—or that a man, being conscious and awake, should neither see, nor hear the sound thereof when the falling rain goes on beating and splashing, and the lightnings are flashing forth, and the thunderbolts are crashing?’

TEMPLE OF THE 500 GENII (China)

From a Photograph Copyright by Underwood&Underwood

38. ’What in comparison, Lord, can these five hundred carts do,or six or seven or eight or nine or ten hundred, yea, even hundreds and thousands of carts. That certainly is more difficult, both to do and to meet with, that a man being conscious and awake should neither see, nor hear the sound thereof when the falling rain goes on beating and splashing, and the lightnings are flashing forth, and the thunderbolts are crashing.’

39. ’Now on one occasion, Pukkusa, I was dwelling at Atuma, and was at the Threshing-floor. And at that time the falling rain begun to beat and to splash, and the lightnings to flash forth, and the thunderbolts to crash; and two peasants, brothers, and four oxen were killed. Then, Pukkusa, a great multitude of people went forth from Atuma, and went up to the place where the two peasants, brothers, and the four oxen, lay killed.

40. ’Now at that time, Pukkusa, I had gone forth from the Threshing-floor, and was walking up and down thinking at the entrance to the Threshing-floor. And a certain man came, Pukkusa, out of that great multitude of people, up to the place where I was; and when he came up he saluted me, and took his place respectfully on one side.

41. ’And as he stood there, Pukkusa, I said to the man:

’"Why then, sir, is this great multitude of people assembled together?"

’"But just now, the falling rain began to beat and to splash, and the lightnings to flash forth, and the thunderbolts to crash; and two peasants, brothers, were killed, and four oxen. Therefore is this great multitude of people gathered together. But where, Lord, were you?"

’"I, sir, have been here all the while."

’"But, Lord, did you see it?"

’"I, sir, saw nothing."

’"But, Lord, did you hear it?"

’"I, sir, heard nothing."

’"Were you then, Lord, asleep?"

’"I, sir, was not asleep."

’"Were you then conscious, Lord?"

’"Even so, sir."

’"So that you, Lord, being conscious and awake, neither saw, nor heard the sound thereof when the falling rain went on beating and splashing, and the lightnings were flashing forth, and the thunderbolts were crashing."

’"That is so, sir."

42. ’Then, Pukkusa, the thought occurred to that man: ’"How wonderful a thing is it, and marvellous, that those who have gone forth out of the world should pass their time in a state of mind so calm!—so that a man being conscious and awake neither sees nor hears the sound thereof when the falling rain is beating and splashing, and the lightnings are flashing forth, and the thunderbolts are crashing." And after giving utterance to his deep faith in me, he departed from me with the customary demonstrations of respect.’

43. And when he had thus spoken Pukkusa, the young Mallian, addressed the Blessed One in these words: ’Now I, Lord, as to the faith that I had in Alara Kalama, that I winnow away as in a mighty wind, and wash it away as in a swiftly running stream. Most excellent, Lord, are the words of thy mouth, most excellent! Just as if a man were to set up that which is thrown down, or were to reveal that which is hidden away, or were to point out the right road to him who has gone astray, or were to bring a lamp into the darkness, so that those who have eyes can see external forms—just even so, Lord, has the truth been made known to me, in many a figure, by the Blessed One. And I, even I, betake myself, Lord, to the Blessed One as my refuge, to the Truth, and to the Brotherhood. May the Blessed One accept me as a disciple, as a true believer, from this day forth, as long as life endures!’

44. Now Pukkusa, the young Mallian, addressed a certain man, and said: ’Fetch me, I pray you, my good man, a pair of robes of cloth of gold, burnished and ready for wear.’

’So be it, sir!’ said that man, in assent, to Pukkusa, the young Mallian; and he brought a pair of robes of cloth of gold, burnished and ready for wear.

45. And the Mallian Pukkusa presented the pair of robes of cloth of gold, burnished and ready for wear, to the Blessed One, saying, ’Lord, this pair of robes of burnished cloth of gold is ready for wear. May the Blessed One show me favour and accept it at my hands!’

’In that case, Pukkusa, robe me in one, and Ananda in one.’

’Even so, Lord!’ said Pukkusa, in assent, to the Blessed One; and in one he robed the Blessed One, and in one, Ananda.

46. Then the Blessed One instructed and aroused and incited and gladdened Pukkusa, the young Mallian, with religious discourse. And Pukkusa, the young Mallian, when he had been instructed andaroused and incited and gladdened by the Blessed One with religious discourse, arose from his seat, and bowed down before the Blessed One; and keeping him on his right hand as he passed him, departed thence.

47. Now not long after the Mallian Pukkusa had gone, the venerable Ananda placed that pair of robes of cloth of gold, burnished and ready for wear, on the body of the Blessed One, and when it was so placed on the body of the Blessed One it appeared to have lost its splendour!

48. And the venerable Ananda said to the Blessed One: ’How wonderful a thing is it, Lord, and how marvellous, that the colour of the skin of the Blessed One should be so clear, so exceeding bright! For when I placed even this pair of robes of burnished cloth of gold and ready for wear on the body of the Blessed One, lo! it seemed as if it had lost its splendour!’

49. ’It is even so, Ananda. Ananda, there are two occasions on which the colour of the skin of a Tathagata becomes clear and exceeding bright. What are the two?

50. ’On the night, Ananda, on which a Tathagata attains to the supreme and perfect insight, and on the night in which he passes finally away in that utter passing away which leaves nothing whatever to remain—on these two occasions the colour of the skin of the Tathagata becomes clear and exceeding bright.

51. ’And now this day, Ananda, at the third watch of the night, in the Upavattana of Kusinara, in the Sala Grove of the Mallians, between the twin Sala trees, the utter passing away of the Tathagata will take place. Come, Ananda! Let us go on to the river Kakuttha.’

’Even so, Lord!’ said the venerable Ananda, in assent, to the Blessed One.

52. The pair of robes of cloth of gold,
All burnished, Pukkusa had brought,
Clad on with them the Master then
Shone forth in colour like to gold!

53. Now the Blessed One with a great company of the brethren went on to the river Kakuttha; and when he had come there, he went down into the water, and bathed, and drank. And coming up out again on the other side he went on to the Mango Grove.

54. And when he was come there he addressed the venerableKundaka, and said: ’Fold, I pray you, Kundaka, a robe in four and spread it out. I am weary, Kundaka, and would lie down.’

’Even so, Lord!’ said the venerable Kundaka, in assent, to the Blessed One. And he folded a robe in four, and spread it out.

55. And the Blessed One laid himself down on his right side, with one foot resting on the other; and calm and self-possessed, he meditated on the idea of rising up again in due time. And the venerable Kundaka seated himself there in front of the Blessed One.

56. The Buddha to Kakuttha’s river came,
Whose clear and pleasant waters limpid flow,
He plunged beneath the stream wearied and worn,
The Buddha without equal in the world!
When he had bathed and drunk, the teacher then
Crossed o’er, the brethren thronging round his steps;
The Blessed Master, preaching the while the truth,
The Mighty Sage came to the Mango Grove.
There spake he to the brother Kundaka:
’Spread me the fourfold robe out as a couch.’
Cheered by the Holy One, he quickly spread
The fourfold robe in order on the ground.
The Master laid him down, wearied and worn;
And there, before him, Kunda took his seat.

57. And the Blessed One addressed the venerable Ananda, and said: "Now it may happen, Ananda, that some one should stir up remorse in Kunda the smith, by saying: "This is evil of thee, Kunda, and loss to thee in that when the Tathagata had eaten his last meal from thy provision, then he died." Any such remorse, Ananda, in Kunda the smith should be checked by saying, "This is good to thee, Kunda, and gain to thee, in that when the Tathagata had eaten his last meal from thy provision, then he died. From the very mouth of the Blessed One, Kunda, have I heard, from his own mouth have I received this saying, ’These two offerings of food are of equal fruit, and of equal profit, and of much greater fruit and much greater profit than any other—and which are the two? The offering of food which, when a Tathagata has eaten, he attains to supreme and perfect insight; and the offering of food which, when a Tathagata has eaten, he passes away by that utter passing away in which nothing whatever remains behind—these two offerings of food are of equal fruit and of equal profit, and of much greater fruit and much greater profit than anyothers. There has been laid up by Kunda the smith a karma redounding to length of life, redounding to good birth, redounding to good fortune, redounding to good fame, redounding to the inheritance of heaven, and of sovereign power.’" In this way; Ananda, should be checked any remorse in Kunda the smith.’

58. Then the Blessed One perceiving how the matter stood, uttered, even at that time, this hymn of exultation:

’To him who gives shall virtue be increased;
In him who curbs himself, no anger can arise;
The righteous man casts off all sinfulness,
And by the rooting out of lust, and bitterness,
And all delusion, doth to Nirvana reach!’

End of the Fourth Portion for Recitation, containing the Episode of Alara.

CHAPTER V.

1. Now the Blessed One addressed the venerable Ananda, and said: ’Come, Ananda, let us go on to the Sala Grove of the Mallas, the Upavattana of Kusinara, on the further side of the river Hiranyavati.’

’Even so, Lord!’ said the venerable Ananda, in assent, to the Blessed One.

2. And the Blessed One proceeded with a great company of the brethren to the Sala Grove of the Mallas, the Upavattana of Kusinara on the further side of the river Hiranyavati: and when he had come there he addressed the venerable Ananda, and said:

3. ’Spread over for me, I pray you, Ananda, the couch with its head to the north, between the twin Sala trees. I am weary, Ananda, and would lie down.’

’Even so, Lord!’ said the venerable Ananda, in assent, to the Blessed One. And he spread a covering over the couch with its head to the north, between the twin Sala trees. And the Blessed One laid himself down on his right side, with one leg resting on the other; and he was mindful and self-possessed.

4. Now at that time the twin Sala trees were all one mass of bloom with flowers out of season; and all over the body of the Tathagata these dropped and sprinkled and scattered themselves, out ofreverence for the successor of the Buddhas of old. And heavenly Mandarava flowers, too, and heavenly sandal-wood powder came falling from the sky, and all over the body of the Tathagata they descended and sprinkled and scattered themselves, out of reverence for the successor of the Buddhas of old. And heavenly music was sounded in the sky, out of reverence for the successor of the Buddhas of old. And heavenly songs came wafted from the skies, out of reverence for the successor of the Buddhas of old!

5. Then the Blessed One addressed the venerable Ananda, and said: ’The twin Sala trees are all one mass of bloom with flowers out of season; all over the body of the Tathagata these drop and sprinkle and scatter themselves, out of reverence for the successor of the Buddhas of old. And heavenly Mandarava flowers, too, and heavenly sandal-wood powder come falling from the sky, and all over the body of the Tathagata they descend and sprinkle and scatter themselves, out of reverence for the successor of the Buddhas of old. And heavenly music sounds in the sky, out of reverence for the successor of the Buddhas of old. And heavenly songs come wafted from the skies, out of reverence for the successor of the Buddhas of old!’

6. ’Now it is not thus, Ananda, that the Tathagata is rightly reverenced, venerated, held sacred or revered. But the brother or the sister, the devout man or the devout woman, who continually fulfils all the greater and the lesser duties, who is correct in life, walking according to the precepts—it is he who rightly honours, reverences, venerates, holds sacred, and reveres the Tathagata with the worthiest homage. Therefore, O Ananda, be ye constant in the fulfilment of the greater and of the lesser duties, and be ye correct in life, walking according to the precepts; and thus, Ananda, should it be taught.’

7. Now at that time the venerable Upavana was standing in front of the Blessed One, fanning him. And the Blessed One was not pleased with Upavana, and he said to him: ’Stand aside, O brother, stand not in front of me!’

8. Then this thought sprung up in the mind of the venerable Ananda: ’The venerable Upavana has long been in close personal attendance and service on the Blessed One. And now, at the last moment, the Blessed One is not pleased with Upavana, and has said to him, "Stand aside, O brother, stand not in front of me!" What may be the cause and what the reason that the Blessed One is notpleased with Upavana, and speaks thus with him?’

9. And the venerable Ananda said to the Blessed One: ’The venerable Upavana has long been in close personal attendance and service on the Blessed One. And now, at the last moment, the Blessed One is not pleased with Upavana, and has said to him, "Stand aside, O brother, stand not in front of me!" What may be the cause and what the reason that the Blessed One is not pleased with Upavana, and speaks thus with him?’

10. ’In great numbers, Ananda, are the gods of the ten world-systems assembled together to behold the Tathagata. For twelve leagues, Ananda, around the Sala Grove of the Mallas, the Upavattana of Kusinara, there is no spot in size even as the pricking of the point of the tip of a hair which is not pervaded by powerful spirits. And the spirits, Ananda, are murmuring, and say, "From afar have we come to behold the Tathagata. Few and far between are the Tathagatas, the Arahat Buddhas who appear in the world: and now to-day, in the last watch of the night, the death of a Tathagata will take place; and this eminent brother stands in front of the Tathagata, concealing him, and in his last hour we are prevented from beholding the Tathagata;" thus, Ananda, do the spirits murmur.’

11. ’But of what kind of spirits is the Blessed One thinking?’

12. ’There are spirits, Ananda, in the sky, but of worldly mind, who dishevel their hair and weep, who stretch forth their arms and weep, who fall prostrate on the ground, and roll to and fro in anguish at the thought: "Too soon will the Blessed One die! Too soon will the Happy One pass away! Full soon will the Light of the world vanish away!"’

13. ’There are spirits, too, Ananda, on the earth, and of worldly mind, who tear their hair and weep, who stretch forth their arms and weep, who fall prostrate on the ground, and roll to and fro in anguish at the thought: "Too soon will the Blessed One die! Too soon will the Happy One pass away! Full soon will the Eye of the world disappear from sight!"

14. ’But the spirits who are free from passion bear it, calm and self-possessed, mindful of the saving which begins, "Impermanent indeed are all component things. How then is it possible [whereas anything whatever, when born, brought into being, and organised, contains within itself the inherent necessity of dissolution—how then is it possible that such a being should not be dissolved? No such condition can exist!"]

15. ’In times past, Lord, the brethren, when they had spent the rainy season in different districts, used to come to see the Tathagata, and we used to receive those very reverend brethren to audience, and to wait upon the Blessed One. But, Lord, after the end of the Blessed One, we shall not be able to receive those very reverend brethren to audience, and to wait upon the Blessed One.’

16. ’There are these four places, Ananda, which the believing man should visit with feelings of reverence and awe. Which are the four?

17. ’The place, Ananda, at which the believing man can say, "Here the Tathagata was born!" is a spot to be visited with feelings of reverence and awe.

18. ’The place, Ananda, at which the believing man can say, "Here the Tathagata attained to the supreme and perfect insight!" is a spot to be visited with feelings of reverence and awe.

19. ’The place, Ananda, at which the believing man can say, "Here was the kingdom of righteousness set on foot by the Tathagata!" is a spot to be visited with feelings of reverence and awe.

20. ’The place, Ananda, at which the believing man can say, "Here the Tathagata passed finally away in that utter passing away which leaves nothing whatever to remain behind!" is a spot to be visited with feelings of reverence and awe.

21. ’And there will come, Ananda, to such spots, believers, brethren and sisters of the order, or devout men and devout women, and will say, "Here was the Tathagata born!" or, "Here did the Tathagata attain to the supreme and perfect insight!" or, "Here was the kingdom of righteousness set on foot by the Tathagata!" or, "Here the Tathagata passed away in that utter passing away which leaves nothing whatever to remain behind!"

22. ’And they, Ananda, Who shall die while they, with believing heart, are journeying on such pilgrimage, shall be reborn after death, when the body shall dissolve, in the happy realms of heaven.’

23. ’How are we to conduct ourselves, Lord, with regard to womankind?’

’Don’t see them, Ananda.’

’But if we should see them, what are we to do?’

’Abstain from speech, Ananda.’

’But if they should speak to us, Lord, what are we to do?

’Keep wide awake, Ananda.’

24. ’What are we to do, Lord, with the remains of the Tathagata?’

’Hinder not yourselves, Ananda, by honouring the remains of the Tathagata. Be zealous, I beseech you, Ananda, in your own behalf! Devote yourselves to your own good! Be earnest, be zealous, be intent on your own good! There are wise men, Ananda, among the nobles, among the Brahmans, among the heads of houses, who are firm believers in the Tathagata; and they will do due honour to the remains of the Tathagata.’

25. ’What should be done, Lord, with the remains of the Tathagata?’

’As men treat the remains of a king of kings, so Ananda, should they treat the remains of a Tathagata.’

’And how, Lord, do they treat the remains of a king of kings?’

26. ’They wrap the body of a king of kings, Ananda, in a new cloth. When that is done they wrap it in carded cotton wool. When that is done they wrap it in a new cloth,—and so on till they have wrapped the body in five hundred successive layers of both kinds. Then they place the body in an oil vessel of iron, and cover that close up with another oil vessel of iron. They then build a funeral pile of all kinds of perfumes, and burn the body of the king of kings. And then at the four cross roads they erect a dagaba to the king of kings. This, Ananda, is the way in which they treat the remains of a king of kings.

’And as they treat the remains of a king of kings, so, Ananda, should they treat the remains of the Tathagata. At the four cross roads a dagaba should be erected to the Tathagata. And whosoever shall there place garlands or perfumes or paint, or make salutation there, or become in its presence calm in heart—that shall long be to them for a profit and a joy.’

27. ’These men, Ananda, worthy of a dagaba, are four in number. Which are the four?

’A Tathagata, or Arahat-Buddha, is worthy of a dagaba. A Pakkeka-Buddha is worthy of a dagaba. A true hearer of the Tathagata is worthy of a dagaba. A king of kings is worthy of a dagaba.

28. ’And on account of what circumstance, Ananda, is a Tathagata, an Arahat-Buddha, worthy of a dagaba?

’At the thought, Ananda, "This is the dagaba of that Blessed One, of that Arahat-Buddha," the hearts of many shall be made calm and happy; and since they there had calmed and satisfied their hearts they will be reborn after death, when the body has dissolved, in the happy realms of heaven. It is on account of this circumstance, Ananda, that a Tathagata, an Arahat-Buddha, is worthy of a dagaba.’

29. ’And on account of what circumstance, Ananda, is a Pakkeka-Buddha worthy of a dagaba?

’At the thought, Ananda, "This is the dagaba of that Blessed One, of that Pakkeka-Buddha," the hearts of many shall be made calm and happy; and since they there had calmed and satisfied their hearts they will be reborn after death, when the body has dissolved, in the happy realms of heaven. It is on account of this circumstance, Ananda, that a Pakkeka-Buddha is worthy of a dagaba.

30. ’And on account of what circumstance, Ananda, is a true hearer of the Blessed One, the Arahat-Buddha, worthy of a dagaba?

’At the thought, Ananda, "This is the dagaba of that true hearer of the Blessed Arahat-Buddha," the hearts of many shall be made calm and happy; and since they there had calmed and satisfied their hearts they will be reborn after death, when the body has dissolved, in the happy realms of heaven. It is on account of this circumstance, Ananda, that a true hearer of the Blessed One, the Arahat-Buddha, is worthy of a dagaba.

31. ’And on account of what circumstance, Ananda, is a king of kings worthy of a dagaba?

’At the thought, Ananda, "This is the dagaba of that righteous king who ruled in righteousness," the hearts of many shall be made calm and happy; and since they there had calmed and satisfied their hearts they will be reborn after death, when the body has dissolved, in the happy realms of heaven.’ It is on account of this circumstance, Ananda, that a king of kings is worthy of a dagaba.

’These four, Ananda, are the persons worthy of a dagaba.’

32. ’Now the venerable Ananda went into the Vihara, and stood leaning against the lintel of the door, and weeping at the thought: "Alas! I remain still but a learner, one who has yet to work out his own perfection. And the Master is about to pass away from me—he who is so kind!"’

33. Now the Blessed One called the brethren, and said: ’Where, then, brethren, is Ananda?’

The venerable Ananda, Lord, has gone into the Vihara, and stands leaning against the lintel of the door, and weeping at the thought: ’Alas! I remain still but a learner, one who has yet to work out his own perfection. And the Master is about to pass away from me—he who is so kind!’

34. And the Blessed One called a certain brother, and said: ’Go now, brother, and call Ananda in my name, and say, "Brother Ananda, the Master calls for thee."’

’Even so, Lord!’ said that brother, in assent, to the Blessed One. And he went up to the place where the Blessed One was; and when he had come there, he said to the venerable Ananda: ’Brother Ananda, the Master calls for thee.’

’Very well, brother,’ said the venerable Ananda, in assent, to that brother. And he went up to the place where the Blessed One was, and when he had come there, he bowed down before the Blessed One, and took his seat respectfully on one side.

35. Then the Blessed One said to the venerable Ananda, as he sat there by his side: ’Enough, Ananda! Do not let yourself be troubled; do not weep! Have I not already, on former occasions, told you that it is in the very nature of all things most near and dear unto us that we must divide ourselves from them, leave them, sever ourselves from them? How, then, Ananda, can this be possible—whereas anything whatever born, brought into being, and organised, contains within itself the inherent necessity of dissolution—how, then, can this be possible, that such a being should not be dissolved? No such condition can exist! For a long time, Ananda, have you been very near to me by acts of love, kind and good, that never varies, and is beyond all measure. For a long time, Ananda, have you been very near to me by words of love, kind and good, that never varies, and is beyond all measure. For a long time, Ananda, have you been very near to me by thoughts of love, kind and good, that never varies, and is beyond all measure. You have done well, Ananda! Be earnest in effort, and you too shall soon be free from the great evils—from sensuality, from individuality, from delusion, and from ignorance!’

36. Then the Blessed One addressed the brethren, and said: ’Whosoever, brethren, have been Arahat-Buddhas through the long ages of the past, there were servitors just as devoted to those Blessed Ones as Ananda has been to me. And whosoever, brethren, shall be Arahat-Buddhas in the long ages of the future, there shall beservitors just as devoted to those Blessed Ones as Ananda has been to me.

37. ’He is a wise man, brethren,—is Ananda. He knows when it is the right time for him to come and visit the Tathagata, and when it is the right time for the brethren and sisters of the order, for devout men and devout women, for a king, or for a king’s ministers, for other teachers or their disciples, to come and visit the Tathagata.

38. ’Brethren, there are these four wonderful and marvellous qualities in Ananda. ’Which are the four?

’If, brethren, a number of the brethren of the order should come to visit Ananda, they are filled with joy on beholding him; and if Ananda should then preach the truth to them, they are filled with joy at the discourse; while the company of brethren is ill at ease, brethren, when Ananda is silent.

’If, brethren, a number of the sisters of the order, or of devout men, or of devout women; should come to visit Ananda, they are filled with joy on beholding him; and if Ananda should then preach the truth to them, they are filled with joy at the discourse; while the company of sisters is ill at ease, brethren, when Ananda is silent.

39. ’Brethren, there are these four wonderful and marvellous qualities in a king of kings. What are the four?

’If, brethren, a number of nobles, or Brahman, or heads of houses, or Samanas should come to visit a king of kings, they are filled with joy on beholding him; and if the king of kings should then speak, they are filled with joy at what is said; while they are ill at ease, brethren, when the king of kings is silent.

40. ’Just so, brethren, are the four wonderful and marvellous qualities in Ananda.

’If, brethren, a number of the brethren of the order, or of the sisters of the order, or of devout men, or of devout women, should come to visit Ananda, they are filled with joy on beholding him; and if Ananda should then preach the truth to them, they are filled with joy at the discourse; while the company of brethren is ill at ease, brethren, when Ananda is silent.

’Now these, brethren, are the four wonderful and marvellous qualities that are in Ananda.’

41. When he had thus spoken, the venerable Ananda said to the Blessed One:

’Let not the Blessed One die in this little wattel and daub town, in this town in the midst of the jungle, in this branch township. For,Lord, there are other great cities, such as Kampa, Ragagaha, Savatthi, Saketa, Kosambi, and Benares. Let the Blessed One die in one of them. There are many wealthy nobles and Brahmans and heads of houses, believers in the Tathagata, who will pay due honour to the remains of the Tathagata.’

42. ’Say not so, Ananda! Say not so, Ananda, that this is but a small wattel and daub town, a town in the midst of the jungle, a branch township. Long ago, Ananda, there was a king, by name Maha-Sudassana, a king of kings, a righteous man who ruled in righteousness, Lord of the four quarters of the earth, conqueror, the protector of his people, possessor of the seven royal treasures. This Kusinara, Ananda, was the royal city of king Maha-Sudassana, under the name of Kusavati, and on the east and on the west it was twelve leagues in length, and on the north and on the south it was seven leagues in breadth.

43. ’That royal city Kusavati, Ananda, was mighty, and prosperous, and full of people, crowded with men, and provided with all things for food. Just, Ananda, as the royal city of the gods, Alakamanda by name, is mighty, prosperous, and full of people, crowded with the gods, and provided with all kinds of food, so, Ananda, was the royal city Kusavati mighty and prosperous, full of people, crowded with men, and provided with all kinds of food.

44. ’Both by day and by night, Ananda, the royal city Kusavati resounded with the ten cries; that is to say, the noise of elephants, and the noise of horses, and the noise of chariots; the sounds of the drum, of the tabor, and of the lute; the sound of singing, and the sounds of the cymbal and of the gong; and lastly, with the cry, "Eat, drink, and be merry!"

45. ’Go now, Ananda, and enter into Kusinara, and inform the Mallas of Kusinara, saying, "this day, O Vasetthas, in the last watch of the night, the final passing away of the Tathagata will take place. Be favourable herein, O Vasetthas, be favourable. Give no occasion to reproach yourselves hereafter, saying, ’In our own village did the death of our Tathagata take place, and we took not the opportunity of visiting the Tathagata in his last hours.’"’

’Even so, Lord,’ said the venerable Ananda, in assent, to the Blessed One: and he robed himself, and taking his bowl, entered into Kusinara attended by another member of the order.

46. Now at that time the Mallas of Kusinara were assembled in the council hall on some public affair.

And the venenable Ananda went to the council hall of the Mallas of Kusinara; and when he had arrived there, he informed them, saying, ’This day, O Vasetthas, in the last watch of the night, the final passing away of the Tathagata will take place. Be favourable herein, O Vasetthas, be favourable. Give no occasion to reproach yourselves hereafter, saying, "In our own village did the death of our Tathagata take place, and we took not the opportunity of visiting the Tathagata in his last hours."’

47. And when they had heard this saying of the venerable Ananda, the Mallas with their young men and maidens and their wives were grieved, and sad, and afflicted at heart. And some of them wept, dishevelling their hair, and stretched forth their arms and wept, fell prostrate on the ground, and rolled to and fro in anguish at the thought: ’Too soon will the Blessed One die! Too soon will the Happy One pass away! Full soon will the Light of the world vanish away!’

48. Then the Mallas, with their young men and maidens and their wives, being grieved and sad and afflicted at heart, went to the Sala Grove of the Mallas, to the Upavattana, and to the place where the venerable Ananda was.

49. Then the venerable Ananda thought: ’If I allow the Mallas of Kusinara, one by one, to pay their respects to the Blessed One, the whole of the Mallas of Kusinara will not have been presented to the Blessed One until this night brightens up into the dawn. Let me, now, cause the Mallas of Kusinara to stand in groups, each family in a group, and so present them to the Blessed One, saying, "Lord! a Malla of such and such a name, with his children, his wives, his retinue, and his friends, humbly bows down at the feet of the Blessed One."’

50. And the venerable Ananda caused the Mallas of Kusinara to stand in groups, each family in a group, and so presented them to the Blessed One, and said: ’Lord! a Malla of such and such a name, with his children, his wives, his retinue, and his friends, humbly bows down at the feet of the Blessed One.’

51. And after this manner the venerable Ananda presented all the Mallas of Kusinara to the Blessed One in the first watch of the night.

52. Now at that time a mendicant named Subhadda, who was not a believer, was dwelling at Kusinara. And the mendicant Subhadda heard the news: ’This very day, they say, in the third watch of the night, will take place the final passing away of the Samana Gotama.’

53. Then thought the mendicant Subhadda: ’This have I heard from fellow mendicants of mine, old and well stricken in years, teachers and disciples, when they said: "Sometimes and full seldom do Tathagatas appear in the world, the Arahat Buddhas." Yet this day, in the last watch of the night, the final passing away of the Samana Gotama will take place. Now a certain feeling of uncertainty has sprung up in my mind; and this faith have I in the Samana Gotama, that he, methinks, is able so to present the truth that I may get rid of this feeling of uncertainty.

54. Then the mendicant Subhadda went to the Sala Grove of the Mallas, to the Upavattana of Kusinara, to the place where the venerable Ananda was.

55. And when he had come there he said to the venerable Ananda: ’Thus have I heard from fellow mendicants of mine, old and well stricken in years, teachers and disciples, when they said: "Sometimes and full seldom do Tathagatas appear in the world, the Arahat Buddhas." Yet this day, in the last watch of the night, the final passing away of the Samana Gotama will take place. Now a certain feeling of uncertainty has sprung up in my mind; and this faith have I in the Samana Gotama, that he, methinks, is able so to present the truth that I may get rid of this feeling of uncertainty. O that I, even I, Ananda, might be allowed to see the Samana Gotama!’

56. And when he had thus spoken the venerable Ananda said to the mendicant Subhadda: ’Enough! friend Subhadda. Trouble not the Tathagata. The Blessed One is weary.’

57. And again the mendicant Subhadda [made the same request in the same words, and received the same reply]; and the third time the mendicant Subhadda [made the same request in the same words, and received the same reply].

58. Now the Blessed One overheard this conversation of the venerable Ananda with the mendicant Subhadda. And the Blessed One called the venerable Ananda, and said: ’It is enough, Ananda! Do not keep out Subhadda. Subhadda, Ananda, may be allowed to see the Tathagata. Whatever Subhadda may ask of me, he will ask from a desire for knowledge, and not to annoy me. And whatever I may say in answer to his questions, that he will quickly understand.’

59. Then the venerable Ananda said to Subhadda, the mendicant: ’Enter in, friend Subhadda; for the Blessed One gives you leave.’

60. Then Subhadda, the mendicant, went in to the place where the Blessed One was, and saluted him courteously, and after exchanging with him the compliments of esteem and civility, he took his seat on one side. And when he was thus seated, Subhadda, the mendicant, said to the Blessed One: ’The Brahmans by saintliness of life, Gotama, who are heads of companies of disciples and students, teachers of students, well known, renowned, founders of schools of doctrine, esteemed as good men by the multitude—to wit, Purana Kassapa, Makkhali of the cattle-pen, Agita of the garment of hair, Kakkayana of the Pakudha tree, Sangays the son of the Belatthi slave-girl, and Nigantha of the Natha clan—have they all, according to their own assertion, thoroughly understood things? or have they not? or are there some of them who have understood, and some who have not?’

61. ’Enough, Subhadda! Let this matter rest whether they, according to their own assertion, have thoroughly understood things, or whether they have not, or whether some of them have understood and some have not! The truth, Ananda, will I teach you. Listen well to that, and give ear attentively, and I will speak.’

’Even so, Lord!’ said the mendicant Subhadda, in assent, to the Blessed One.

62. And the Blessed One spake: ’In whatsoever doctrine and discipline, Subhadda, the noble eightfold path is not found, neither in it is there found a man of true saintliness of the first or of the second or of the third or of the fourth degree. And in whatsoever doctrine and discipline, Subhadda, the noble eightfold path is found, is found the man of true saintliness of the first and the second and the third and the fourth degree. Now in this doctrine and discipline, Subhadda, is found the noble eightfold path, and in it alone, Subhadda, is the man of true saintliness. Void are the systems of other teachers—void of true saints. And in this one, Subhadda, may the brethren live the Life that’s Right, so that the world be not bereft of Arahats.

’But twenty-nine was I when I renounced
The world, Subhadda, seeking after good.
For fifty years and one year more, Subhadda,
Since I went out, a pilgrim have I been
Through the wide realms of virtue and of truth,
And outside these no really "saint" can be!

’Yea, not of the first, nor of the second, nor of the third, nor of the fourth degree. Void are the systems of other teachers—void of true saints. But in this one, Subhadda, may the brethren live the perfect life, that the world be not bereft of those who have reached the highest fruit.’

63. And when he had thus spoken, Subhadda, the mendicant, said to the Blessed One: ’Most excellent, Lord, are the words of thy mouth, most excellent! Just as if a man were to set up that which is thrown down, or were to reveal that which is hidden away, or were to point out the right road to him who has gone astray, or were to bring a lamp into the darkness, so that those who have eyes can see external forms;—just even so, Lord, has the truth been made known to me, in many a figure, by the Blessed One. And I, even I, betake myself, Lord, to the Blessed One as my refuge, to the truth, and to the order. May the Blessed One accept me as a disciple, as a true believer, from this day forth, as long as life endures!’

64. ’Whosoever, Subhadda, that has formerly been a follower of another doctrine and then desires to be received into the higher or the lower grade in this doctrine and discipline, he remains on probation for the space of four months; and at the end of the four months, the brethren, exalted in spirit, receive him into the lower or into the higher grade of the order. Nevertheless in this case I acknowledge the difference in persons.’

65. ’If, Lord, whosoever that has formerly been a follower of another doctrine and then desires to be received into the higher or the lower grade in this doctrine and discipline,—if, in that case, such a person remains on probation for the space of four months; and at the end of the four months, the brethren, exalted in spirit, receive him into the lower or into the higher grade of the order—I too, then, will remain on probation for the space of four months; and, at the end of the four months let the brethren, exalted in spirit, receive me into the lower or into the higher grade of the order!’

66. But the Blessed One called the venerable Ananda, and said: ’As it is, Ananda, receive Subhadda into the order!’

’Even so, Lord!’ said the venerable Ananda, in assent, to the Blessed One.

67. And Subhadda, the mendicant, said to the venerable Ananda: ’Great is your gain, friend Ananda, great is your good fortune, friend Ananda, that you all have been sprinkled with the sprinkling of discipleship in this brotherhood at the hands of the Master himself!’

68. So Subhadda, the mendicant, was received into the higher grade of the order under the Blessed One; and from immediately after his ordination the venerable Subhadda remained alone and separate, earnest, zealous, and resolved. And e’er long he attained to that supreme goal of the higher life for the sake of which men go out from all and every household gain and comfort to become houseless wanderers—yea, that supreme goal did he, by himself, and while yet in this visible world, bring himself to the knowledge of, and continue to realise, and to see face to face! And he became conscious that birth was at an end, that the higher life had been fulfilled, that all that should be done had been accomplished, and that after this present life, there would be no beyond!

69. So the venerable Subhadda became yet another among the Arahats; and he was the last disciple whom the Blessed One himself converted.

End of the Hirannavatiya portion, being the Fifth Portion for Recitation.

CHAPTER VI.

1. Now the Blessed One addressed the venerable Ananda, and said: ’It may be, Ananda, that in some of you the thought may arise, "The word of the Master is ended, we have no teacher more!" But it is not thus, Ananda, that you should regard it. The truths and the rules of the order which I have set forth and laid down for you all, let them, after I am gone, be the Teacher to you.’

2. ’Ananda! when I am gone address not one another in the way in which the brethren have heretofore addressed each other—with the epithet, that is, of "Avuso" (Friend). A younger brother may be addressed by an elder with his name, or his family name, or the title "Friend." But an elder should be addressed by a younger brother as "Lord" or as "Venerable Sir."’

3. ’When I am gone, Ananda, let the order, if it should so wish, abolish all the lesser and minor precepts.’

4. ’When I am gone, Ananda, let the higher penalty be imposed on brother Khanna.’

’But what, Lord, is the higher penalty?’

’Let Khanna say whatever he may like, Ananda, the brethren should neither speak to him, nor exhort him, nor admonish him.’

5. Then the Blessed One addressed the brethren, and said: ’It may be, brethren, that there may be doubt or misgiving in the mind of some brother as to the Buddha, or the truth, or the path, or the way. Enquire, brethren, freely. Do not have to reproach yourselves afterwards with the thought, "Our teacher was face to face with us, and we could not bring ourselves to enquire of the Blessed One when we were face to face with him."’

And when he had thus spoken the brethren were silent.

6. And again the second and the third time the Blessed One addressed the brethren, and said: ’It may be, brethren, that there may be doubt or misgiving in the mind of some brother as to the Buddha, or the truth, or the path, or the way. Enquire, brethren, freely. Do not have to reproach yourselves afterwards with the thought, "Our teacher was face to face with us, and we could not bring ourselves to enquire of the Blessed One when we were face to face with him."’

And even the third time the brethren were silent.

7. Then the Blessed One addressed the brethren, and said: ’It may be, brethren, that you put no questions out of reverence for the teacher. Let one friend communicate to another.’

And when he had thus spoken the brethren were silent.

8. And the venerable Ananda said to the Blessed One: ’How wonderful a thing is it, Lord, and how marvellous! Verily, I believe that in this whole assembly of the brethren there is not one brother who has any doubt or misgiving as to the Buddha, or the truth, or the path, or the way!’

9. ’It is out of the fulness of faith that thou hast spoken, Ananda! But, Ananda, the Tathagata knows for certain that in this whole assembly of the brethren there is not one brother who has any doubt or misgiving as to the Buddha, or the truth, or the path, or the way! For even the most backward, Ananda, of all these five hundred brethren has become converted, and is no longer liable to be born in a state of suffering, and is assured of final salvation.’

10. Then the Blessed One addressed the brethren, and said: ’Behold now, brethren, I exhort you, saying, "Decay is inherent inall component things! Work out your salvation with diligence!"

This was the last word of the Tathagata!

11. Then the Blessed One entered into the first stage of deep meditation. And rising out of the first stage he passed into the second. And rising out of the second he passed into the third. And rising out of the third stage he passed into the fourth. And rising out of the fourth stage of deep meditation he entered into the state of mind to which the infinity of space is alone present. And passing out of the mere consciousness of the infinity of space he entered into the state of mind to which nothing at all was specially present. And passing out of the consciousness of no special object he fell into a state between consciousness and unconsciousness. And passing out of the state between consciousness and unconsciousness he fell into a state in which the consciousness both of sensations and of ideas had wholly passed away.

12. Then the venerable Ananda said to the venerable Anuruddha: ’O my Lord, O Anuruddha, the Blessed One is dead!’

’Nay! brother Ananda, the Blessed One is not dead. He has entered into that state in which both sensations and ideas have ceased to be!’

13. Then the Blessed One passing out of the state in which both sensations and ideas have ceased to be, entered into the state between consciousness and unconsciousness. And passing out of the state between consciousness and unconsciousness he entered into the state of mind to which nothing at all is specially present. And passing out of the consciousness of no special object he entered into the state of mind to which the infinity of thought is alone present. And passing out of the mere consciousness of the infinity of thought he entered into the state of mind to which the infinity of space is alone present. And passing out of the mere consciousness of the infinity of space he entered into the fourth stage of deep meditation. And passing out of the fourth stage he entered into the third. And passing out of the third stage he entered into the second. And passing out of the second he entered into the first. And passing out of the first stage of deep meditation he entered the second. And passing out of the second stage he entered into the third. And passing out of the third stage he entered into the fourth stage of deep meditation. And passing out of the last stage of deep meditation he immediately expired.

14. When the Blessed One died there arose, at the moment of his passing out of existence, a mighty earthquake, terrible and awe-inspiring: and the thunders of heaven burst forth.

15. When the Blessed One died, Brahma Sahampati, at the moment of his passing away from existence, uttered this stanza:

’They all, all beings that have life, shall lay
Aside their complex form—that aggregation
Of mental and material qualities,
That gives them, or in heaven or on earth,
Their fleeting individuality!
E’en as the teacher—being such a one,
Unequalled among all the men that are,
Successor of the prophets of old time,
Mighty by wisdom, and in insight clear—
     Hath died!’

16. When the Blessed One died, Sakka, the king of the gods, at the moment of his passing away from existence, uttered this stanza:

’They’re transient all, each being’s parts and powers,
Growth is their nature, and decay.
They are produced, they are dissolved again:
And then is best, when they have sunk to rest!’

17. When the Blessed One died, the venerable Anuruddha, at the moment of his passing away from existence, uttered these stanzas:

’When he who from all craving want was free,
Who to Nirvana’s tranquil state had reached,
When the great sage finished his span of life,
No gasping struggle vexed that steadfast heart!
All resolute, and with unshaken mind,
He calmly triumphed o’er the pain of death.
E’en as a bright flame dies away, so was
His last deliverance from the bonds of life!’

18. When the Blessed One died, the venerable Ananda, at the moment of his passing away from existence, uttered this stanza:

’Then was there terror!
Then stood the hair on end!
When he endowed with every grace—
The supreme Buddha—died!’

19. When the Blessed One died, of those of the brethren who were not free from the passions, some stretched out their arms and wept, and some fell headlong to the ground, rolling to and fro inanguish at the thought: ’Too soon has the Blessed One died! Too soon has the Happy One passed away from existence! Too soon has the Light gone out in the world!’

But those of the brethren who were free from the passions (the Arahats) bore their grief collected and composed at the thought: ’Impermanent are all component things! How is it possible that [they should not be dissolved]?’

20. Then the venerable Anuruddha exhorted the brethren, and said: ’Enough, my brethren! Weep not, neither lament! Has not the Blessed One formerly declared this to us, that it is in the very nature of all things near and dear unto us, that we must divide ourselves from them, leave them, sever ourselves from them? How, then, brethren, can this be possible—that whereas anything whatever born, brought into being, and organised, contains within itself the inherent necessity of dissolution how then can this be possible that such a being should not be dissolved? No such condition can exist! Even the spirits, brethren, will reproach us.

’But of what kind of spirits is the Lord, the venerable Anuruddha, thinking?

21. ’There are spirits, brother Ananda, in the sky, but of worldly mind, who dishevel their hair and weep, and stretch forth their arms and weep, fall prostrate on the ground, and roll to and fro in anguish at the thought: "Too soon has the Blessed One died! Too soon has the Happy One passed away! Too soon has the Light gone out in the world!"

’There are spirits, too, Ananda, on the earth, and of worldly mind, who tear their hair and weep, and stretch forth their arms and weep, fall prostrate on the ground, and roll to and fro in anguish at the thought: "Too soon has the ’Blessed One died! Too soon has the Happy One passed away! Too soon has the Light gone out in the world!"

’But the spirits who are free from passion hear it, calm and self-possessed, mindful of the saying which begins, "Impermanent indeed are all component things. How then is it possible [that such a being should not be dissolved]?"’

22. Now the venerable Anuruddha and the venerable Ananda spent the rest of that night in religious discourse. Then the venerable Anuruddha said to the venerable Ananda: ’Go now, brother Ananda, into Kusinara and inform the Mallas of Kusinara, saying,’The Blessed One, O Vasetthas, is dead: do, then, whatever seemeth to you fit!’

’Even so, Lord!’ said the venerable Ananda, in assent, to the venerable Anuruddha. And having robed himself early in the morning, he took his bowl, and went into Kusinara with one of the brethren as an attendant.

23. Now at that time the Mallas of Kusinara were assembled in the council hall concerning that very matter.

And the venerable Ananda went to the council hall of the Mallas of Kusinara; and when he had arrived there, he informed them, saying, ’The Blessed One, O Vasetthas, is dead; do, then, whatever seemeth to you fit!’

24. And when they had heard this saying of the venerable Ananda, the Mallas, with their young men and their maidens and their wives, were grieved, and sad, and afflicted at heart. And some of them wept, dishevelling their hair, and some stretched forth their arms and wept, and some fell prostrate on the ground, and some reeled to and fro in anguish at the thought: ’Too soon has the Blessed One died! Too soon has the Happy One passed away! Too soon has the Light gone out in the world!’

25. Then the Mallas of Kusinara gave orders to their attendants, saying, ’Gather together perfumes and garlands, and all the music in Kusinara!’

26. And the Mallas of Kusinara took the perfumes and garlands, and all the musical instruments, and five hundred suits of apparel, and went to the Upavattana, to the Sala Grove of the Mallas, where the body of the Blessed One lay. There they past the day in paying honour, reverence, respect, and homage to the remains of the Blessed One with dancing, and hymns, and music, and with garlands and perfumes; and in making canopies of their garments, and preparing decoration wreaths to hang thereon.

27. Then the Mallas of Kusinara thought:

’It is much too late to burn the body of the Blessed One to-day. Let us now perform the cremation to-morrow.’ And in paying honour, reverence, respect, and homage to the remains of the Blessed One with dancing, and hymns, and music, and with garlands and perfumes; and in making canopies of their garments, and preparing decoration wreaths to hang thereon, they past the second day too, and then the third day, and the fourth, and the fifth, and the sixth day also.

28. Then on the seventh day the Mallas of Kusinara thought:

’Let us carry the body of the Blessed One, by the south and outside, to a spot on the south, and outside of the city,—paying it honour, and reverence, and respect, and homage, with dance and song and music, with garlands and perfumes,—and there, to the south of the city, let us perform the cremation ceremony!’

29. And thereupon eight chieftains among the Mallas bathed their heads, and clad themselves in new garments with the intention of bearing the body of the Blessed One. But, behold, they could not lift it up!

30. Then the Mallas of Kusinara said to the venerable Anuruddha: ’What, Lord, can be the reason, what can be the cause that eight chieftains of the Mallass who have bathed their heads, and clad themselves in new garments with the intention of bearing the body of the Blessed One, are unable to lift it up?’

"It is because you, O Vasetthas, have one purpose, and the spirits have another purpose.’

31. ’But what, Lord, is the purpose of the spirits?’

’Your purpose, O Vasetthas, in this, Let us carry the body of the Blessed One, by the south and outside, to a spot on the south, and outside of the city,—paying it honour, and reverence, and respect, and homage, with dance and song and music, with garlands and perfumes,—and there, to the south of the city, let us perform the cremation ceremony. But the purpose of the spirits, Vasetthas, is this, Let us carry the body of the Blessed One by the north to the north of the city, and entering the city by the north gate, let us bring it through the midst of the city into the midst thereof. And going out again by the eastern gate,—paying honour, and reverence, and respect, and homage to the body of the Blessed One, with heavenly dance, and song, and music, and garlands, and perfumes,—let us carry it to the shrine of the Mallas called Makuta-bandhana, to the east of the city, and there let us perform the cremation ceremony.’

’Even according to the purpose of the spirits, so, Lord, let it be!’

32. Then immediately all Kusinara down even to the dust bins and rubbish heaps became strewn knee-deep with Mandarava flowers from heaven! and while both the spirits from the skies, and the Mallas of Kusinara upon earth, paid honour, and reverence, and respect, and homage to the body of the Blessed One, with dance and song and music, with garlands and with perfumes, they carried the body by the north to the north of the city; and entering the city by thenorth gate they carried it through the midst of the city into the midst thereof; and going out again by the eastern gate they carried it to the shrine of the Mallas, called Makuta-bandhana; and there, to the east of the city, they laid down the body of the Blessed One.

33. Then the Mallas of Kusinara said to the venerable Ananda: ’What should be done, Lord, with the remains of the Tathagata?’

’As men treat the remains of a king of kings, so, Vasetthas, should they treat the remains of a Tathagata.’

’And how, Lord, do they treat the remains of a king of kings?’ ’They Wrap the body of a king of kings, Vasetthas, in a new cloth. When that is done they wrap it in cotton wool. When that is done they wrap it in a new cloth,—and so on till they have wrapped the body in five hundred successive layers of both kinds. Then they place the body in an oil vessel of iron, and cover that close up with another oil vessel of iron. They then build a funeral pile of all kinds of perfumes, and burn the body of the king of kings. And then at the four cross roads they erect a dagaba to the king of kings. This, Vasetthas, is the way in which they treat the remains of a king of kings.

’And as they treat the remains of a king of kings, so, Vasetthas, should they treat the remains of the Tathagata. At the four cross roads a dagaba should be erected to the Tathagata. And whosoever shall there place garlands or perfumes or paint, or make salutation there, or become in its presence calm in heart—that shall long be to them for a profit and a joy.’

34. Therefore the Mallas gave orders to their attendants, saying, ’Gather together all the carded cotton wool of the Mallas!’

35. Then the Mallas of Kusinara wrapped the body of the Blessed One in a new cloth. And when that was done, they wrapped it in a new cloth,—and so on till they had wrapped the body of the Blessed One in five hundred layers of both kinds. And then they placed the body in an oil vessel of iron, and covered that close up with another vessel of iron. And then they built a funeral pile of all kinds of perfumes, and upon it they placed the body of the Blessed One.

36. Now at that time the venerable Maha Kassapa was journeying along the high road from Pava to Kusinara with a great company of the brethren, with about five hundred of the brethren. Andthe venerable Maha Kassapa left the high road, and sat himself down at the foot of a certain tree.

37. Just at that time a certain naked ascetic who had picked up a Mandarava flower in Kusinara was coming along the high road to Pava.

38. And the venerable Maha Kassapa saw the naked ascetic coming in the distance; and when he had seen him he said to the naked ascetic:

’O friend! surely thou knowest our Master?’

’Yea, friend! I know him. This day the Samana Gotama has been dead a week! That is how I obtained this Mandarava flower.’

39. And immediately of those of the brethren who were not yet free from the passions, some stretched out their arms and wept, and some fell headlong on the ground, and some reeled to and fro in anguish at the thought: ’Too soon has the Blessed One died! Too soon has the Happy One passed away from existence! Too soon has the Light gone out in the world!’

But those of the brethren who were free from the passions (the Arahats) bore their grief collected and composed at the thought: ’Impermanent are all component things! How is it possible that they should not be dissolved?’

40. Now at that time a brother named Subhadda, who had been received into the order in his old age, was seated there in their company.

And Subhadda the old addressed the brethren, and said: ’Enough, brethren! Weep not, neither lament! We are well rid of the great Samana. We used to be annoyed by being told, "This beseems you, this beseems you not." But now we shall be able to do whatever we like; and what we do not like, that we shall not have to do!’

41. But the venerable Maha Kassapa addressed the brethren, and said: ’Enough, my brethren! Weep not, neither lament! Has not the Blessed One formerly declared this to us, that it is in the very nature of all things, near and dear unto us, that we must divide ourselves from them, leave them, sever ourselves from them? How then, brethren, can this be possible—that whereas anything whatever born, brought into being, and organised contains within itself the inherent necessity of dissolution—how then can this be possible that such a being should not be dissolved? No such condition can exist!’

42. Now just at that time four chieftains of the Mallas had bathed their heads and clad themselves in new garments with the intention of setting on fire the funeral pile of the Blessed One. But, behold, they were unable to set it alight!

43. Then the Mallas of Kusinara said to the venerable Anuruddha: ’What, Lord, can be the reason, and what the cause, that four chieftains of the Mallas who have bathed their heads, and clad themselves in new garments, with the intention of setting on fire the funeral pile of the Blessed One, are unable to set it on fire?’

’It is because you, O Vasetthas, have one purpose, and the spirits have another purpose.’

44. ’But what, Lord, is the purpose of the spirits?’

’The purpose of the spirits, O Vasetthas, is this: That venerable brother Maha Kassapa is now journeying along the high road from Pava to Kusinara with a great company of the brethren, with five hundred of the brethren. The funeral pile of the Blessed One shall, not catch fire, until the venerable Maha Kassapa shall have been able reverently to salute the sacred feet of the Blessed One.’

’Even according to the purpose of the spirits, so, Lord, let it be!’

45. Then the venerable Maha Kassapa went on to Makuta-bandhana of Kusinara, to the shrine of the Mallas, to the place where the funeral pile of the Blessed One was. And when he had come up to it, he arranged his robe on one shoulder; and bowing down with clasped hands he thrice walked reverently round the pile; and then, uncovering the feet, he bowed down in reverence at the feet of the Blessed One.

46. And those five hundred brethren arranged their robes on one shoulder; and bowing down with clasped hands, they thrice walked reverently round the pile, and then bowed down in reverence at the feet of the Blessed One.

47. And when the homage of the venerable Maha Kassapa and of those five hundred brethren was ended, the funeral pile of the Blessed One caught fire of itself.

48. Now as the body of the Blessed One burned itself away, from the skin and the integument, and the flesh, and the nerves, and the fluid of the joints, neither soot nor ash was seen: and only the bones remained behind.

Just as one sees no soot or ash when glue or oil is burned; so, as the body of the Blessed One burned itself away, from the skin andthe integument, and the flesh, and the nerves, and the fluid of the joints, neither soot nor ash was seen: and only the bones remained behind. And of those five hundred pieces of raiment the very innermost and outermost were both consumed.

49. And when the body of the Blessed One had been burnt up, there came down streams of water from the sky and extinguished the funeral pile of the Blessed One; and there burst forth streams of water from the storehouse of the waters (beneath the earth), and extinguished the funeral pile of the Blessed One. The Mallas of Kusinara also brought water scented with all kinds of perfumes, and extinguished the funeral pile of the Blessed One.

50. Then the Mallas of Kusinara surrounded the bones of the Blessed One in their council hall with a lattice work of spears, and with a rampart of bows; and there for seven days they paid honour and reverence and respect and homage to them with dance and song and music, and with garlands and perfumes.

51. Now the king of Magadha, Agatasattu, the son of the queen of the Videha clan, heard the news that the Blessed One had died at Kusinara.

Then the king of Magadha, Agatasattu, the son of the queen of the Videha clan, sent a messenger to the Mallas, saying, ’The Blessed One belonged to the soldier caste, and I too am of the soldier caste. I am worthy to receive a portion of the relics of the Blessed One. Over the remains of the Blessed One will I put up a sacred cairn, and in their honour will I celebrate a feast!’

52. And the Likkhavis of Vesali heard the news that the Blessed One had died at Kusinara. And the Likkhavis of Vesali sent a messenger to the Mallas, saying, ’The Blessed One’ belonged to the soldier caste, and we too are of the soldier caste. We are worthy to receive a portion of the relics of the Blessed One. Over the remains of the Blessed One will we put up a sacred cairn, and in their honour will we celebrate a feast!’

53. And the Sakiyas of Kapila-vatthu heard the news that the Blessed One had died at Kusinara. And the Sakiyas of Kapila-vatthu sent a messenger to the Mallas, saying, ’The Blessed One was the pride of our race. We are worthy to receive a portion of the relics of the Blessed One. Over the remains of the Blessed One will we put up a sacred cairn, and in their honour will we celebrate a feast!’

54. And the Bulis of Allakappa heard the news that the Blessed One had died at Kusinara. And the Bulis of Allakappa sent a messenger to the Mallas, saying, ’The Blessed One belonged to the soldier caste, and we too are of the soldier caste. We are worthy to receive a portion of the relics of the Blessed One. Over the remains of the Blessed One will we put up a sacred cairn, and in their honour will we celebrate a feast!’

56. And the Brahman of Vethadipa heard the news that the Blessed One had died at Kusinara. And the Brahman of Vethadipa sent a messenger to the Mallas, saying, ’The Blessed One belonged to the soldier caste, and I am a Brahman. I am worthy to receive a portion of the relics of the Blessed One. Over the remains of the Blessed One will, I put up a sacred cairn, and in their honour will I celebrate a feast!’

57. And the Mallas of Pava heard the news that the Blessed One had died at Kusinara.

’Then the Mallas of Pava sent a messenger to the Mallas, saying, ’The Blessed One belonged to the soldier caste, and we too are of the soldier caste. We are worthy to receive a portion of the relics of the Blessed One. Over the remains of the Blessed One will we put up a sacred cairn, and in their honour will we celebrate a feast!’

58. When they heard these things the Mallas of Kusinara spoke to the assembled brethren, saying, ’The Blessed One died in our village domain. We will not give away any part of the remains of the Blessed One!’

59. When they had thus spoken, Dona the Brahman addressed the assembled brethren, and said:

’Hear, reverend sirs, one single word from me.
Forbearance was our Buddha wont to teach.
Unseemly is it that over the division
Of the remains of him who was the best of beings
Strife should arise, and wounds, and war!
Let us all, sirs, with one accord unite
In friendly harmony to make eight portions.
Wide spread let Thupas rise in every land
That in the Enlightened One mankind may trust!’

60. ’Do thou then, O Brahman, thyself divide the remains of the Blessed One equally into eight parts, with fair division.’

’Be it so, sir!’ said Dona, in assent, to the assembled brethren.And he divided the remains of the Blessed One equally into eight parts, with fair division. And he said to them: ’Give me, sirs, this vessel, and I will set up over it a sacred cairn, and in its honour will I establish a feast.’

And they gave the vessel to Dona the Brahman.

61. And the Moriyas of Pipphalivana heard the news that the Blessed One had died at Kusinara.

Then the Moriyas of Pipphalivana sent a messenger to the Mallas, saying, ’The Blessed One belonged to the soldier caste, and we too are of the soldier caste. We are worthy to receive a portion of the relics of the Blessed One. Over the remains of the Blessed One will we put up a sacred cairn, and in their honour will we celebrate a feast!’

And when they heard the answer, saying, ’There is no portion of the remains of the Blessed One left over. The remains of the Blessed One are all distributed,’ then they took away the embers.

62. Then the king of Magadha, Agatasattu, the son of the queen of the Videha clan, made a mound in Ragagaha over the remains of the Blessed One, and held a feast.

And the Likkhavis of Vesali made a mound in Vesali over the remains of the Blessed One, and held a feast.

And the Bulls of Aliakappa made a mound in Aliakappa over the remains of the Blessed One, and held a feast.

And the Koliyas of Ramagama made a mound in Ramagama over the remains of the Blessed One, and held a feast.

And Vethadipaka the Brahman made a mound in Vethadipa over the remains of the Blessed One, and held a feast.

And the Mallas of Pava made a mound in Pava over the remains of the Blessed One, and held a feast.

And the Mallas of Kusinara made a mound in Kusinara over the remains of the Blessed One, and held a feast.

And Dona the Brahman made a mound over the vessel in which the body has been burnt, and held a feast.

And the Moriyas of Pipphalivana made a mound over the embers, and held a feast.

Thus were there eight mounds [Thupas] for the remains, and one for the vessel, and one for the embers. This was how it used to be.

[63. Eight measures of the relics there were of him of the far-seeing eye,
Of the best of the best of men. In India seven are worshipped,
And one measure in Ramagama, by the kings of the serpent race.
One tooth, too, is honoured in heaven, and, one in Gandhara’s city,
One in the Kalinga realm, and one more by the Naga race.
Through their glory the bountiful earth is made bright with offerings painless
For with such are the Great Teacher’s relics best honoured by those who are honoured,
By gods and by Nagas and kings, yea, thus by the noblest of monarchs—
Bow down with clasped hands!
Hard, hard is a Buddha to meet with through hundreds of ages!]

End of the Book of the Great Decease.

TRANSLATED BY T. W. RHYS DAVIDS.

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Title: The Library of Original Sources, Vol 1

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Chicago: "The Last Days of Buddha," The Library of Original Sources, Vol 1 in The Library of Original Sources, ed. Oliver J. Thatcher (Milwaukee, Wisconsin: University Research Extension Co., 1907), 254–267. Original Sources, accessed August 12, 2020, http://originalsources.com/Document.aspx?DocID=GHPL1T8MGB5SCAX.

MLA: . "The Last Days of Buddha." The Library of Original Sources, Vol 1, in The Library of Original Sources, edited by Oliver J. Thatcher, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, University Research Extension Co., 1907, pp. 254–267. Original Sources. 12 Aug. 2020. originalsources.com/Document.aspx?DocID=GHPL1T8MGB5SCAX.

Harvard: , 'The Last Days of Buddha' in The Library of Original Sources, Vol 1. cited in 1907, The Library of Original Sources, ed. , University Research Extension Co., Milwaukee, Wisconsin, pp.254–267. Original Sources, retrieved 12 August 2020, from http://originalsources.com/Document.aspx?DocID=GHPL1T8MGB5SCAX.