Source Problems in English History

Contents:

World History

2.

Extent of the Manor of Borley.

1308. (Latin text in Cunningham, Growth of English Industry and Commerce, third edition, I, Appendix, pp. 576–584. Translated by E. P. Cheyney in Annals of the American Academy, IV, 279–291.1)

. . . . . . .

Free Tenants.—William, son of Ralph, a Knight, holds from the lord 18 acres, by paying thence, yearly, at Easter, 18d., and at the feast of St. Michael, 18d.

Henry of Latheley holds from the lord 50 acres of land, by paying thence, yearly, at Easter, 21d., and at the feast of St. Michael, 21d. And he is bound to attendance at the court.

John of Lystone holds from the lord in Borley 40 acres of land and 4 acres of meadow, by paying therefrom, yearly, at the feast of St. Michael, 6d. for all services.

William Joy holds from the lord one messuage and 20 acres of land, and 2 acres of meadow, and a half-acre of pasture, by paying therefrom, yearly, at the feast of St. Michael, 12d. And he is bound to attendance at court.

Hugh at Fen holds from the lord 6 acres of land, and a half-acre of meadow, and a rood of pasture, by paying thence, yearly, at the aforesaid two periods, 2s. 9d. And he is bound to attendance at court.

Reginald Crummelond holds from the lord 12 acres of land, by paying thence annually 10s. And he is bound to attendance at court.

William le Yachter holds from the lord in the demesne and in service 2 acres of land, and a half-acre of meadow, by paying thence yearly at Easter and at the feast of St. Michael in equal portions, 7d. And he is bound to attendance at court.

Molmen.1—The tenants of the land of Simon of Aunsel, viz., John Aunsel holds 1 cottage and 1 rood of land; Roger at Remete, 4 acres and 3 roods of land; Richard Gakoun, 2 acres of land; William Oslock, 1 acre of land; Augustus, the clerk, two acres and a half of land; Walter Morel, 3 acres of land; Dennis Rauf, 1 rood of meadow. And they pay thence, yearly, that is to say at Easter, 9d., and at the feast of St. Michael, 9d., and at the Purification, of Unthiel,1 2s. 2–3/4d., and at Christmas a hen of the price of 1–1/2d. And they will provide two men to reap for one bedrepe2 in autumn at the will of the lord with the lord’s food, as is explained below. The price of each service is 2d. And they are bound to attendance at court.

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Customary Tenants.—Walter Johan holds from the lord in villeinage one messuage and 10 acres of land, by paying thence yearly at the festival of the Purification of the Blessed Mary, of Unthiel, 4s. 5–1/2d.; and at Easter 20–1/2d.; and at the feast of St. Michael, 26–1/2d.; and at the feast of Christmas, 1 hen and a half, the hen being of the price of 1–1/2d. And from the feast of St. Michael (September 29) to the feast of St. Peter ad Vincula (August 1) in each week 3 works with one man without the food of the lord, the price of a work being 1/2d., three weeks being excepted, that is to say, Christmas week, Easter week, and Whitsuntide, in which they will not work unless it is absolutely required by the necessity for binding the grain in autumn and for carrying hay. And he shall plough with his plough, whether he has to join or not, 4 acres of the land of the lord without the food of the lord, the price of each acre being 5–1/4d., of which 2 acres are to be in the season for planting wheat and 2 for oats. And he shall carry the manure of the lord of the manor with his horse and cart at the food of the lord; that is, each day a loaf and a half of rye bread, of the size of 40 loaves to the quarter, and to weed the grain of the lord so long as there shall be any weeding to be done, and it shall be reckoned in his services. And he ought to mow the meadow of the lord; that is to say, 1 acre and the third part of an acre, according to suitable measure. And it will be reckoned in his services, that is for each acre, 3 works.

And it is to be known that whenever he, along with the other customary tenants of the vill, shall mow the meadow of Rainholm, they shall have, according to custom, 3 bushels of wheat for bread and I ram of the price of 18d., and 1 jar of butter, and 1 cheese next to the best from the dairy of the lord, and salt and oatmeal for their porridge, and all the morning milk from all the cows of the whole dairy at that time. And he shall toss, carry, and pile the said acre and a half of hay, and shall carry it to the manor, and it will be reckoned in his works. And he shall have for each work of mowing as much of the green grass, when he shall have mowed it, as he shall be able to carry on the point of his scythe. And when he has carried the said hay he shall have, at the end of the said carrying, the body of the cart full of hay. And he shall reap in autumn from the feast of St. Peter ad Vincula (August 1) to the feast of St. Michael (September 29) through the whole autumn, 24 works, without food from the lord, the price of one work being 1d. And he shall carry the grain of the lord and pile it, and it shall be accounted for in his works. And he shall have as often as he carries, one bundle called the men-sheaf; and he shall haul with his horse twelve leagues around the manor as much as the weight of 2 bushels of salt or of 3 bushels of wheat, of rye, of peas, or of beans; and of oats, 4 bushels. And he ought to go for the said grain and bring it to the granary of the lord with the aforesaid horse and his own sack. And he shall have, as often as he hauls, as much oats as he is able to measure and carry in the palm of his hand three times. And if he shall not have carried he is not to give anything, but there will be appointed in the place of each carrying one work of the price of a half penny. And he shall give aid and must attend the court. And he shall give merchet on the marriage of his daughter, at the will of the lord.

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[There follow here the entries of twenty-seven other villeins’ rents and services, most of which, accordingto the size of the holdings, resemble closely Walter Johan’s; four cotemen with their minor holdings and services appear next; and the extent concludes with grand summaries and totals of the manor’s annual value, in which the "works" are evaluated on a money basis.]

1 There is an important introduction by Professor Cheyney, Ibid., pp. 275–278.

1 "Men holding in villeinage, but paying money rent with light services."—CUNNINGHAM.

1 The meaning of this word is not known.

2 Often written bedrip.

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Chicago: E. P. Cheyney, trans., "Extent of the Manor of Borley.," Source Problems in English History in Source Problems in English History, ed. Albert Beebe White and Wallace Notestein (New York: Harper & Brothers Publishers, 1915), 127–132. Original Sources, accessed December 15, 2019, http://originalsources.com/Document.aspx?DocID=Y9N7L57KQ89P61G.

MLA: . "Extent of the Manor of Borley." Source Problems in English History, translted by E. P. Cheyney, Vol. IV, in Source Problems in English History, edited by Albert Beebe White and Wallace Notestein, New York, Harper & Brothers Publishers, 1915, pp. 127–132. Original Sources. 15 Dec. 2019. originalsources.com/Document.aspx?DocID=Y9N7L57KQ89P61G.

Harvard: (trans.), 'Extent of the Manor of Borley.' in Source Problems in English History. cited in 1915, Source Problems in English History, ed. , Harper & Brothers Publishers, New York, pp.127–132. Original Sources, retrieved 15 December 2019, from http://originalsources.com/Document.aspx?DocID=Y9N7L57KQ89P61G.