OriginalSources.com is your instant access to classic information from around the world. OriginalSources.com

Original Sources gives you instant access to an extensive, continuously increasing collection of over 420,000 eWorks of classic, original source and general reference materials in twelve subject areas: World History, U.S. History, Political Science, Law, Literature, Science, Mathematics, Social Science, Philosophy, Religion, Language, and Language Arts. This vast collection provides the original sources of humankind's social, political, legal, and religious development, as well as the greatest discoveries, insights, and literary achievements in the words of the actual authors, discoverers, and seekers. It is a reliable fact-checking reference of history's greatest accomplishments. It is the perfect complement to the best encyclopedias. (This content is equivalent to our former OriginalSources.com.) For detailed information on the Original Sources database of OriginalSources.com, click here.

Original Sources

What is the purpose of Original Sources? For whom is this library intended?

●          To select information from the vast reservoir of writing and knowledge about humanity, the world, and the universe of which we are a part, written by original thinkers and experts throughout the ages.

●          To provide insights into the work of great and original minds—people who made breakthroughs in human knowledge or thought.

●          To provide an extensive collection of original source documents in history, politics and government, philosophy, religion, science, and the social sciences. Similarly, to provide extensive examples of the original work of great literary figures writing in English or in other languages.

●          To provide a quotation finder and concordance enabling students to discover the origins or usage of key phrases and words.

●          To meet the research needs of students and teachers in middle school, junior high school, high school, college, and university by providing broad access to primary source material on every computer in the institution’s network.

●          To provide an everyday, up-to-date primary source research tool for librarians, teachers, and the general public.

●          To supplement educational libraries with great books and documents that can be used in teaching subjects such as language, literacy, and history in elementary through high schools.

The use of original sources (or primary sources) exposes students to important historical concepts. First, students become aware that all written history reflects an author’s interpretation of past events. Therefore, as students read a historical account, they can recognize its subjective nature. Second, through primary sources the students directly touch the lives of people in the past. Further, as students use primary sources, they develop important analytical skills. From Teaching with Documents, Volume 1. National Archives and Records Administration and National Council for the Social Studies, 1989 (Part of Original Sources: United States History/ Learning Aids)

Scope and arrangement

Original Sources is organized so that the user can find information quickly and efficiently. This ease of use is achieved through a search feature that enables users to locate information in all text, an intuitive and easy-to-use browse feature, and a carefully designed document screen. Thus, Original Sources provides the user with both an extensive database of original books and source documents, and a quick way of navigating to information relevant to the user’s needs.

A. Expert choice of content

Original Sources focuses on the accomplishments of the greatest minds throughout history. The content was selected as leading examples of original thought or original source documents in each of the collection areas. The selection, made by the staff of Western Standard Publishing Company, used a wide variety of reference and bibliographic sources.

Original Sources is in the spirit of such classic compilations as Oliver Thatcher’s Library of Original Sources; Louis L. Snyder and Richard B. Morris’s They Saw It Happen: Eyewitness Reports of Great Events; the McGraw-Hill and Harvard University Press Source Books in the History of the Sciences; Rossiter Johnson’s Great Events as Told by Famous Historians, and William Jennings Bryan’s World’s Greatest Orations.

In selecting content for Original Sources, editors consulted anthologies and bibliographies such as the W.W. Norton anthologies, The Reader’s Companion to World Literature, McGraw-Hill’s Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, the Loeb Classics, the Harvard Classics, the Modern Library, the Library of America, and Great Books of the Western World. General reference works, including almanacs, bibliographies, encyclopedias, and biographical indices, were also consulted.

In compiling Original Sources, a balanced view was sought by consulting collections by scholars of social history, women’s studies, and ethnic/minority studies. This is to offset a bias introduced by editors of earlier generations of such compilations that emphasized political and military histories.

B. Content format

All text is presented in a common, easy-to-read format. Users can change the type size through their browser to suit individual visual needs. Major books or works are broken down into documents corresponding to chapters or sections, for ease of reference and to provide quick downloading. Users can quickly move section by section through such content whether reviewing or reading the whole text.

To the left of each document is a citation panel that gives information on the work, the document, the author and/or translator, and the year of first publication. Additional information in the panel includes the source used for collecting the work or stand-alone document for the Original Sources library. Also, in the case of some stand-alone documents, a summary of the document is given.

C. Search

An integrated search facility is available in every part of Original Sources. The navigation bar offers a quick search facility for the whole collection available to the user. A word or phrase can be searched in titles, authors, dates, or full text, or in any combination of these elements.

A full search function gives additional search functionality, such as being able to narrow down a search to an individual collection or collections. Six types of search can be performed: Having these words in the title; written by this author; written on this date; containing all of these words; containing any of these words; having these words in the title. Further search options enable these types of search to be combined with the operators ‘and’; ‘or’; and ‘but not’.

D. Browse

The browse function works on a knowledge-tree structure, through which users can branch into individual collections, types of content, sources or authors, documents or works, and chapters or sections.

E. Copying and printing

Any of the text can be highlighted and copied using the copy function in the browser, or the keyboard short cut for copying. Quotations or extracts copied in this way can be pasted into a word processor document.

Original Sources has a print facility available within each document. Users can print out the document, which is headed by the work, document, author, and other information shown in the citation panel to the left of the document text.

Selection and treatment of content

A. Documents

These are the basic units into which text is divided. Many are actual legal and official documents such as Magna Carta, or the Rights of Man and Citizen. Others are individual speeches, essays, letters, short stories or similar items which were originally published individually.Some documents are subdivisions of large books or works. These may be chapters, sections, or ‘books’ within a volume. Where a document has been reproduced from a printed book for Original Sources, the start of each page is noted in the text, so that references to the book pagination may be made. Publication details of each document are listed at the head of the document.

B. Original works

These are writings or records of speeches by great thinkers throughout the ages. They vary in nature from the Gettysburg address to Tolstoy’s novel War and Peace. Collections such as Literature and Language consist mainly of works that were originally published as complete books. All are broken down into documents for ease of reading and reference.

C. Illustrations

Original Sources includes more than 3,700 illustrations. Many are portraits of great thinkers and writers. Others include contemporary depictions of major events, such as Admiral Nelson on board the Victory at the Battle of Trafalgar, and diagrams in a scientific work.

Original Sources content

Each of the twelve subject areas covered in the eight collections in the Original Sources library contains original or primary source material organized according to the nature of the content. The browse feature is structured as a knowledge tree, and enables quick review of the organization of the material in the collections. Each section below gives a brief overview of one of the collections, together with a brief list of content highlights, and a few typical quotations.

A. World History

The main section of this collection contains primary source documents in the history of the world, including eyewitness accounts, original and official documents, treaties, and speeches. The documents are grouped into periods chosen to conform to the McREL standard historical periods. The rich collection of primary source material includes Herodotus’ account of Egypt; Magna Carta; John Knox on ‘The English Revolution’; the Rights of Man and Citizen; Benjamin Franklin on ‘Those who would remove to America’; and the Zimmermann Telegram. The section is supplemented by later great historians’ accounts of some of the major events and topics.

A second section contains whole works of classic historians, including Homer, Herodotus, Thucidydes, Plutarch, Cornelius Tacitus, and William Hickling Prescott.

A third section, Military History, gives accounts of battles and wars and military theory including Hsun Tzu on the art of war; the Battle of Marathon; Judas Maccabaeus liberating Judea; the Anglo-Saxon Conquest of Britain; Mahomet II taking Constantinople; Jeanne D’Arc’s Victory at Orleans; and Defeat of the Spanish Armada.

1. Major writers and examples of works

Baker, Samuel White, Sir: In the Heart of Africa;

Bourrienne, Louis Antoine Fauvelet de: Memoirs of Napoleon (16 volumes)

Burke, Edmund: Selections From the Speeches And Writings of Edmund Burke

Campan, Jeanne Louise Henriette (Genet): Marie Antoinette (7 volumes)

Carlyle, Thomas: French Revolution, The; History of Friedrich II of Prussia

Davis, Richard Harding: Real Soldiers of Fortune; Notes of A War Correspondent

Edwards, Owen Morgan, Sir: Short History of Wales

Gibbon, Edward: History of the Decline And Fall of the Roman Empire

Giles, Herbert Allen: China and the Manchus; Historic China and other sketches

Gordon, Irwin Leslie: Who Was Who: 5000 BC – 1914

Haaren, John H.: Haaren, John H.

Josephus, Flavius: Life of Flavius Josephus, The; Wars of the Jews, The

Lang, Andrew: Voices of Jeanne D’Arc, The

Livingstone, David: Missionary Travels And Researches In South Africa

Macaulay, Thomas Babington Macaulay, Baron: History of England

Machiavelli, Niccolò: History of Florence And of the Affairs of Italy

Marguerite, Queen, consort of Henry IV, King of France: Memoirs of Marguerite de Valois

Oliphant, Mrs. (Margaret): Jeanne D’Arc: her life and death

Pepys, Samuel: Diary of Samuel Pepys, The

Philip, King of Macedon

Pinkerton, John: Early Australian Voyages: Pelsart, Tasman, Dampier

Prescott, William Hickling: The history of the Conquest of Mexico

Readings in English History Drawn from the Original Sources

Retz, Jean François Paul de Gondi de: Memoirs of Cardinal de Retz

Strachey, Lytton: Eminent Victorians; Queen Victoria

Taine, Hippolyte: The Ancient Regime; The French Revolution; The Modern Regime

2. Some stand-alone documents

“Ancient Laws of Babylon”

“Assyrian Inscriptions”

“The Rosetta Stone”

“Egyptian Contract of Marriage”

“Spartan Institutions”

“Rome at the End of the Punic Wars”

“Medieval Universities”

“Magna Carta”

“The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen”

“The Zimmerman Telegram”

“President Kennedy’s Remarks at the Berlin Wall”

3. Selected quotations

If a wife is unfaithful to her husband and then says, “Thou art not my husband,” let her be thrown into the river . . . If a husband says to his wife, “Thou art not my wife,” he shall pay a fine of half a maneh of silver. —— Ancient Babylonian laws.

I am entering on the history of a period rich in disasters, frightful in its wars, torn by civil strife, and even in peace full of horrors. Four emperors perished by the sword. There were three civil wars. —— Cornelius Tacitus: Histories, Book I, A.D. 96.

. . . those, who were called Christians by the mob and hated for their moral enormities . . . a great multitude were convicted . . . of hatred of the human race. —— Tacitus, writing in 64 A.D. about the persecution of Christians.

We have also granted to all the Freemen of our Kingdom, for us and our heirs for ever, all the underwritten Liberties, to be enjoyed and held by them and by their heirs, from us and from our heirs. —— Magna Carta.

That the earth is also spherical is therefore beyond question. . . . That the water also has the same form can be observed from the ships, in that the land which cannot be seen from the deck, is visible from the mast-tree. And conversely if a light be placed at the masthead it seems to those who remain on the shores gradually to sink and at last still sinking to disappear. —— Nicolaus Copernicus, On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres, 1543.

The narrative of the trip as told by the Genoese pilot is given below. It shows that Magellan was a man of indomitable will, who persevered in his expedition in spite of shipwreck, storm and mutiny. —— ‘Magellan’s Voyage Round the World.’

We have considered and determined the military plans of the three Allied powers for the final defeat of the common enemy. . . . Nazi Germany is doomed. The German people will only make the cost of their defeat heavier to themselves by attempting to continue a hopeless resistance. —— Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin Joint Declaration, Yalta, 1945.

B. United States History

This collection documents the history of the United States from the voyages of the Vikings and Columbus through colonial days and up to the present. The main section of this collection contains primary source documents in the history of the United States, including eyewitness accounts, original and official documents, treaties, and speeches. Examples of these documents are the Mayflower Compact, Benjamin Franklin’s Plan of Union, the Declaration of Independence, eyewitness accounts of Civil War battles, Thomas A. Watson on making the first telephone for Alexander Graham Bell, the Resolution on Annexation of the Hawaiian Islands, and the Miranda v. Arizona judgment.

A second section contains the whole of A Dictionary of American History by Thomas L. Purvis. It has more than 3,000 entries giving introductory coverage of all the key topics in the history of the United States.

The third section contains such classic works of American history as History of the American People by Woodrow Wilson, de Tocqueville’s Democracy in America, History of the United States by H.H. Bancroft, and works and essays by such writers as Hector de Crevecoeur, Frederick Douglass, and Mercy Warren.

The final section, Learning Aids, contains much material on the study of Americana from the Library of Congress and the National Archives. This material, of particular value to teachers, includes Milestone Documents in the National Archives, two volumes of Teaching with Documents, and A Guide to the Study of the United States of America.

1. Major writers and examples of works

Adams, Samuel: Writings of Samuel Adams

Brown, William Wells: Clotel; or, The President’s Daughter

Colton, Walter: The Discovery of Gold in California.

Douglass, Frederick: My Bondage and My Freedom; Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass

Ellis, Edward Sylvester: Thomas Jefferson, A Character Sketch

Grant, Ulysses S.: Personal Memoirs

Henry, Patrick: Give Me Liberty or Give Me Death

Judson, Katharine Berry: Myths and Legends of California and the Old Southwest

Lincoln, Abraham: Writings of Abraham Lincoln (7 volumes)

McLaughlin, Marie L.: Myths and Legends of the Sioux

Paine, Thomas: Common Sense

Purvis, Thomas L.: Dictionary of American History

Roosevelt, Theodore: An Autobiography

Rowlandson, Mary: Story of Her Captivity, Sufferings, and Restoration

Sewall, Samuel: “An Early Anti-Slavery Tract”

Smith, John: “The Romance of Pocahontas” and other essays

Stephenson, Nathaniel W.: Abraham Lincoln and the Union; The Day of the Confederacy

Truth, Sojourner: The Narrative of Sojourner Truth.

Warner, Charles Dudley: Captain John Smith; Up the Wilderness; The Story of Pocahontas

Warren, Mercy: John Adams’ Monarchical Ideas; The Death of Parson Caldwell’s Wife; Woman’s Trifling Needs

Washington, Booker T.: Up From Slavery: An Autobiography

2. Some stand-alone documents and collections

Articles of Confederation

“Benjamin Franklin’s Plan of Union”

Bradford, William: “The Voyage of the Mayflower”

Clay, Henry: “The Clay Compromise”

Correspondence of the American Revolution (4 volumes)

“Daniel Boone Migrates to Kentucky”

Fox Bourne, H.R.: “John Locke and the Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina”

Francis Drake: “Drake in California”

“Give Me Liberty or Give Me Death”

King, Martin Luther, Jr.: “I Have a Dream”

Inaugural Addresses of the U.S. Presidents

Jefferson’s Original Draft of the Declaration of Independence, including amendments

Lincoln, Abraham: “Gettysburg Address”

Papal Bull Dividing the New World

San Francisco Earthquake and Fire

Treaty With Spain, 1819

3. Selected quotations

I write this to tell you how in thirty-three days I sailed to the Indies with the fleet that the illustrious King and Queen, our Sovereigns, gave me. —— Letter of Columbus to Luis de Sant Angel announcing his discovery.

Their men for the most part go naked; the women take a kind of bulrushes, and combing it after the manner of hemp, make themselves thereof a loose garment. —— Francis Drake describing the people of California.

Nor have we been wanting in attentions to our British brethren. We have warned them from time to time of attempts by their legislature to extend a[an unwarrantable] jurisdiction over these our States[us]. —— Jefferson’s Original Draft of the Declaration, including amendments.

Friends and Fellow Citizens:—I stand before you to-night under indictment for the alleged crime of having voted at the last presidential election, without having a lawful right to vote. —— Susan B. Anthony ‘Woman’s Rights to the Suffrage’.

If we survey the situation of our Nation both at home and abroad, we find many satisfactions; we find some causes for concern. . . . The larger purpose of our economic thought should be to establish more firmly stability and security of business and employment and thereby remove poverty still further from our borders. —— Herbert Hoover’s Inaugural Address, March 4, 1929.

C. Political Science & Law

There are four main sections in this collection: General, Comparative Government, Political Theory and Philosophy, and American Government and Politics. Smaller sections cover Constitution Law and

The general section covers the evolution of politics, government, and law in original works and documents such as The Code of Hammurabi; The Supremacy of Parliament; the Habeus Corpus Act of 1679; and the Bill of Rights of 1689. The section on comparative government includes works by Edmund Burke, Karl Marx, and Michel Eyquem de Montaigne.

Political Theory and Philosophy is a large section containing great works from throughout history. Plato’s book The Republic is the oldest, and later works include Nicolo Machiavelli’s The Prince; letters and autobiographical extracts from Thomas Jefferson’s writing; Frederic Bastiat’s books That Which Is Seen, and That Which Is Not Seen, and The Law; and John Stuart Mill’s books including On Liberty and Representative Government.

American Government and Politics is a huge section, with subsections on U.S. Presidents, U.S. Congress, U.S. Supreme Court, Founding Fathers, Constitution Reference, and National Party Platforms 1840-2000. All of the inaugural addresses, messages, and papers of all presidents from Washington to Clinton are included. From 1994 onwards, there is a weekly compilation of presidential papers. The other subsections have similarly wide coverage, making American Government and Politics an unparalleled, comprehensive online collection.

1. Major writers and examples of works

Bastiat, Frederic: That Which Is Seen, and That Which Is Not Seen

Brownson, Orestes Augustus: American Republic, The: Constitution, Tendencies and Destiny

Burke, Edmund: Reflections on the Revolution in France

Directory of U.S. Senators by State

Hamilton, Alexander: The Federalist Papers

Historical Almanack of the U.S. Senate

History of the United States Senate

Holmes, Oliver Wendell: The Common Law; The Path of the Law

Hobbes, Thomas: Leviathan

Jefferson, Thomas: Declaration of Independence; Hamilton and Adams; Correspondence, essays, presidential papers.

Locke, John: Human Understanding; Civil Government

Machiavelli, Nicolo: The Prince

Marx, Karl: Communist Manifesto

Mill, John Stuart: On Liberty; Representative Government; Utilitarianism

De Montaigne, Michel Eyquem: Essays

Plato: Republic

Rousseau, Jean-Jacques: The Social Contract; Confessions; Discourse on the Origins of Inequality

Tocqueville, Alexis de: Democracy in America (2 volumes)

2. Stand-alone documents and collections

Constitutional Reference: Documents relating to the U.S. Constitution

European Union: “Treaty of the European Union”

Founding Fathers: documents by or about the leaders of the American Revolution

“Habeus Corpus Act”

“Japan, Constitution of, 1886"

“Japan, Constitution of, 1946"

National Party Platforms 1840-2000

“Supremacy of Parliament”

“United States Bill of Rights”

United States Congress: documents on history and workings of the senate

“United States Constitution”

“United States Declaration of Independence”

United States Presidents: Inaugural Addresses; messages, papers, and documents of all the presidents

United States Supreme Court: 16,000 important cases from 1793 to 2001

3. Selected quotations

If a builder has built a house for a man and has not made strong his work, and the house he built has fallen, and he has caused the death of the owner of the house, that builder shall be put to death. —— Code of Hammurabi.

For by art is created that great LEVIATHAN called a COMMONWEALTH, or STATE (in Latin, CIVITAS), which is but an artificial man, though of greater stature and strength than the natural, for whose protection and defence it was intended; and in which the sovereignty is an artificial soul. —— Thomas Hobbes: Leviathan

ALL STATES, all powers, that have held and hold rule over men have been and are either republics or principalities. . . . Such dominions thus acquired are either accustomed to live under a prince, or to live in freedom; and are acquired either by the arms of the prince himself, or of others, or else by fortune or by ability. —— Nicolo Machiavelli: The Prince.

Have you ever chanced to hear it said “There is no better investment than taxes. Only see what a number of families it maintains, and consider how it reacts on industry; it is an inexhaustible stream, it is life itself. In order to combat this doctrine.” —— Frederic Bastiat: That Which Is Seen, and That Which Is Not Seen.

By some minds, government is conceived as strictly a practical art, giving rise to no questions but those of means and an end. —— John Stuart Mill: Representative Government.

If taxes are laid upon us in any shape, without our having a legal representation where they are laid, are we not reduced from the character of free subjects to the miserable state of tributary slaves? —— Samuel Adams: “The Boston Instructions”.

And so, my fellow Americans: ask not what your country can do for you—ask what you can do for your country. My fellow citizens of the world: ask not what America will do for you, but what together we can do for the freedom of man. —— John F. Kennedy: Inaugural Address.

D. Social Sciences

The main sections in this collection come under the headings of Anthropology; Economics; Psychology; Sociology; Family, Marriage, Sex, and Gender; and Vital Statistics.

The content of the Anthropology section ranges from paleontological writing such as that of Thomas Huxley and Emory Adams Allen, to anthropological works by George Borrow on the people and language of Wales; Ellsworth Huntington on aboriginal Americans; and the writing of William I. Thomas; Alfred L. Kroeber; and T. T. Waterman.

The Economics section covers the great works of pioneers of economics thinking such as Karl Marx, John Stuart Mill, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, and Adam Smith, as well as essays and extracts from such important writers in economics as John Locke, Thomas Robert Malthus, Thomas Mun, Francois Quesnay, and David Ricardo.

In addition to the inevitable and essential selection of Sigmund Freud’s writing, the diverse writers in the psychology section include Charles Darwin on emotions in animals and humans; Harry Houdini on the psychological tricks of spiritualists; Gustave Le Bon on the psychology of revolution; Abraham Myerson on the foundations of personality; and Walter Dill Scott on Business Psychology.

Sociology is a section ranging through works such as Thorstein Veblen on theory of the leisure class; Gustave Le Bon on the sociology of the crowd; and Jane Addams, William Booth, Thomas Carlyle, William Greenwood, and Leo Tolstoy on social conditions and problems.

The Family, Marriage, Sex, and Gender section includes classics such as Susan B. Anthony’s “Woman’s Rights to the Suffrage”; Eliza Burt Gamble’s God-Idea of the Ancients—or Sex in Religion; three works by Charlotte Perkins Gilman; and Mary Wollstonecraft’s A Vindication of the Rights of Woman.

1. Major writers and examples of works

A Young Girl’s Diary

Addams, Jane: Twenty Years At Hull House; with autobiographical notes

Allen, Emory Adams: Prehistoric World, The: or, Vanished races

Borrow, George Henry: Wild Wales: Its People, Language and Scenery

Booth, William: In Darkest England and the Way Out

Carlyle, Thomas: Latter-Day Pamphlets

Chesterton, G. K. (Gilbert Keith): Utopia of Usurers, and other essays; What’s Wrong with the


Dumas, Alexandre: Celebrated Crimes – Complete; The Borgias

Ferri, Enrico: Criminal Sociology

Gamble, Eliza Burt: God-Idea of the Ancients—or Sex in Religion

Gilman, Charlotte Perkins: Forerunner; Herland

Goldman, Emma: Anarchism and Other Essays

Gross, Hans Gustav Adolf: Criminal Psychology; a manual for judges, practitioners, and


Guthrie, William: Second Shetland Truck System Report

Harrington, James: Commonwealth of Oceana, The

Hose, Charles: Pagan Tribes of Borneo, The

Hulbert, Archer Butler: Paths of Inland Commerce, The

Huxley, Thomas Henry: Geological Contemporaneity and Persistent Types of Life

Huntington, Ellsworth: Red Man’s Continent, The: A Chronicle of Aboriginal America

Irving, Henry Brodribb: Book of Remarkable Criminals, A

Keller, Helen: Story of My Life

London, Jack: War of the Classes

Kingsley, Charles: Sanitary and Social Lectures, etc

Kroeber, Alfred L., and Waterman, T. T.: Source Book in Anthropology

Mandeville, John, Sir: Travels of Sir John Mandeville, The

More, Sir Thomas, Saint: Utopia

Morris, William: Signs of Change; News from Nowhere, or, An Epoch of Rest

Nadaillac, Jean-François-Albert du Pouget, Marquis de: Manners and Monuments of Prehistoric


Schreiner, Olive: Woman and Labour

Smith, Adam: Inquiry Into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, An

Tolstoy, Leo: Census in Moscow, The; What to Do? Thoughts Evoked By the Census of


Veblen, Thorstein: Theory of the Leisure Class

Wollstonecraft, Mary: Vindication of the Rights of Woman

Young, Kimball: Source Book for Sociology; Source Book for Social Psychology

2. Documents, speeches, papers and essays

“A Comparison of Municipal and Private Ownership”

Anthony, Susan B.: “Woman’s Rights to the Suffrage”

“Interstate Commerce Commission”

A Historical Record of the Population of the United States [From 1630 to 1991]

United States Price/Cost Indexes from 1875 to 1989

3. Selected quotations

The beginning of archaeology may be said to have been made with the decipherment of the Rosetta stone. This was found at Rosetta in 1799. It contained three inscriptions, one in hieroglyphic, one in demotic and the other in Greek. —— Oliver J. Thatcher: The Library of Original Sources.

I confess I am not charmed with an ideal of life held out by those who think that the normal state of human beings is that of struggling to get on; that the trampling, crushing, elbowing, and treading on each other’s heels, which form the existing type of social life, are the most desirable lot of human kind, or anything but the disagreeable symptoms of one of the phases of industrial progress. —— John Stuart Mill: Principles of Political Economy.

The word Economy, or Oeconomy, is derived from oikos, a house, and uomas, law, and meant originally only the wise and legitimate government of the house for the common good of the whole family. —— Jean-Jacques Rousseau: “A Discourse on Political Economy.”

“It is especially to be remarked how readily infantile and youthful reminiscences enter into our dreams. What we have long ceased to think about, what has long since lost all importance for us, is constantly recalled by the dream.” —— A quote from Volkelt in Sigmund Freud’s Interpretation of Dreams.

It is then an affection for the whole human race that makes my pen dart rapidly along to support what I believe to be the cause of virtue: and . . . leads me earnestly to wish to see woman placed in a station in which she would advance . . . the progress of those glorious principles that give a substance to morality. . . . In a treatise, therefore, on female rights and manners, the works which have been particularly written for their improvement must not be overlooked; especially when it is asserted . . . that the minds of women are enfeebled by false refinement. —— Mary Wollstonecraft: A Vindication of the Rights of Woman.

E. Literature

This huge collection contains the most acclaimed and dominant literary writing in history. It contains more than 3,000 complete books, and is divided into three main sections—American Literature, British Literature, and World Literature. Each section contains many great authors’ works that are on recommended book lists for high school libraries. The inclusion of many writers of interest to younger readers makes the Literature Collection of particular relevance to elementary and middle schools.

American Literature contains the works of more than 80 great writers, including L. Frank Baum’s 2 Oz novels; 12 novels by Edgar Rice Burroughs; 5 novels of James Fenimore Cooper; the works of Mark Twain; and Walt Whitman’s Leaves of Grass. Poets in the collection include William Cullen Bryant, Robert Frost, and Carl Sandburg. Works by women writers include 3 novels by Louisa May Alcott; 4 novels of Willa Cather; The Story of My Life by Helen Keller; Mary Rowlandson’s description of her captivity; and Harriet Beecher Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin. Female poets represented include Anne Bradstreet, Emily Dickinson, Edna St. Vincent Millais, and Phillis Wheatley.

British Literature includes the works of more than 90 great writers, including J. M. Barrie’s Peter Pan; Beowulf; the works of Lewis Carroll; 11 novels of Charles Dickens; 4 plays of George Bernard Shaw; all the plays of William Shakespeare; and 24 works of Oscar Wilde. Poets in the collection include Robert Burns, John Milton, Percy Bysshe Shelley, and Alfred Lord Tennyson. Works by women writers include 6 novels by Jane Austen; 1 novel each by Charlotte and Emily Bronte; 2 novels of George Eliot (Mary Ann Evans); Baroness Orczy’s Scarlet Pimpernel; Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley’s Frankenstein; Virginia Woolf’s The Voyage Out; and poems by Elizabeth Barrett Browning, Felicia Memens, and Christina Rossetti.

World Literature includes the works of more than 60 great writers, translated into English. Examples are: 7 of the plays of Aeschylus; 30 of Aesop’s fables; more than 150 of the tales of Hans Christian Andersen; 6 works of Miguel de Cervantes; 3 novels of Alexandre Dumas; 19 plays by Euripides; more than 200 children’s stories by the Brothers Grimm; the Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam: Leo Tolstoy’s two great novels, Anna Karenina and War and Peace; and Johann Wyss’s Swiss Family Robinson.

1. Major authors with examples of works

American Literature

Alcott, Louisa May: Flower Fables; Little Women; Little Men

Alger, Horatio: Cast Upon the Breakers

Baum, Frank: The Marvelous Land of Oz; The Wizard of Oz

Burnett, Frances Hodgson: A Little Princess; Sara Crewe; The Secret Garden

Chief Joseph of the Nez Perce: “I Will Fight No More Forever”

Chopin, Kate: 21 stories

Cooper, James Fenimore: 5 novels

Dana, Richard Henry: Two Years Before the Mast

Dickinson, Emily: 4 volumes of poetry

Douglass, Frederick: My Bondage and My Freedom; The Narrative of the Life of J. Frederick

Douglass, An American Slave

Emerson, Ralph Waldo:2 volumes of essays; Representative men; “Brahma”; “Concord Hymn”

Frost, Robert: 3 volumes of poetry

Hawthorne, Nathaniel: The House of the Seven Gables; The Scarlet Letter; Twice-Told Tales

Henry, O.: 12 volumes containing 263 stories

Irving, Washington: The Alhambra; The Sketch Book

Keller, Helen: The Story of My Life

Lazarus, Emma: “The New Colossus”

London, Jack: 6 novels

Longfellow, Henry Wadsworth: Complete Poems; Evangeline

Lowell, James: 15 essays; 9 poems

Melville, Hermann: Billy Budd; Encantadas; Moby-Dick; Typee

Millay, Edna St. Vincent: Renascence and Other Poems

Morley, Christopher: Parnassus on Wheels; The Haunted Bookshop

Phillips, David Graham: Susan Lenox, Her Rise and Fall

Poe, Edgar Allan: more than 120 stories and poems

Porter, Gene Stratton: At the Foot of the Rainbow; Freckles; Girl of the Limberlost; The Song of the Cardinal

Pound, Ezra: 22 poems, including translations into English

Robinson, Edwin Arlington: “Miniver Cheevy”; “Richard Corey”

Rowson, Susanna: Charlotte Temple

Sandburg, Carl: Chicago Poems

Sienkiewicz, Henryk: Quo Vadis

Sinclair, Upton: The Jungle

Stowe, Harriet Beecher: Uncle Tom’s Cabin

Thoreau, Henry David: Walden – or Life in the Woods; plus 4 essays

Twain, Mark: 12 volumes of novels and stories

Wallace, Lew: Ben Hur

Warren, Mercy: 1 letter; 1 essay; and 1 poem—“Woman’s Trifling Needs”

Washington, Booker T.: Up From Slavery

Webster, Jean: Daddy-Long-Legs

Wharton, Edith: Ethan Frome; Summer

Wheatley, Phillis: 4 poems

Whittier, John Greenleaf: “Barbara Frietchie”

Winthrop, Margaret: “A Puritan Wife To Her Husband”; “The Trust of a Godly Woman”

Woolman, John: How He Testified in the Meeting Against Slavery

British Literature

Arnold, Matthew: Dover Beach

Austen, Jane: Pride and Prejudice; Sense and Sensibility

Barrie, J.M.: Peter Pan


Blake, William: 8 poems

Boswell, James: The Life of Samuel Johnson

Bronte, Charlotte: Jane Eyre

Bronte, Emily: Wuthering Heights

Brooke, Rupert: The Soldier

Browning, Elizabeth Barrett: two of the Sonnets from the Portuguese

Browning, Robert: 2 volumes of lyrics and poems

Burns, Robert: “A Red, Red Rose”; “Sweet Afton”

Butler, Samuel: Way of All Flesh

Byron, George Gordon, Lord: Don Juan; “She Walks in Beauty”;” “So We’ll Go No More a Roving”

Carlyle, Thomas: The Hero as Poet

Carroll, Lewis: 75 works – poems; riddles; such novels as Alice in Wonderland; Through the Looking-Glass

Chaucer, Geoffrey: The Canterbury Tales; The House of Fame; The Legend of Good Women; Minor Poems; Troilus and Criseyde

Chesterton, G.K.: Orthodoxy; the Innocence of Father Brown

Coleridge, Samuel Taylor: 6 works, including “Kubla Khan”; “The Rime of The Ancient Mariner”

Dickens, Charles: 11 major works

Eliot, George (Evans, Mary Anne ): 5 novels, including Middlemarch; Silas Marner

Keats, John: 37 major poems

Kingsley, Charles: Westward Ho!

Kipling, Rudyard: The Jungle Book; stories, poems, and novels

Lawrence, D.H.: Sons and Lovers

Lear, Edward: The Owl and the Pussy-Cat

Marvell, Andrew: To His Coy Mistress

Milton, John: 22 major poems including Paradise Lost

Munro (Saki), H.H.: 3 volumes of stories

Orczy, Baroness: The Scarlet Pimpernel

Rossetti, Christina: Remember

Scott, Sir Walter: Waverley

Shakespeare, William: All 34 plays; 154 sonnets

Shaw, George Bernard: Arms and the Man; Pygmalion

Shelley, Mary Wollstonecraft: Frankenstein

Shelley, Percy Bysshe: “Ode To the West Wind”; “Ozymandias”

Stevenson, Robert Louis: The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde; Treasure Island

Stoker, Bram: Dracula

Swift, Jonathan: Gulliver’s Travels

Tennyson, Alfred Lord: Idylls of the King; “The Charge of the Light Brigade”

Wells, H.G.: The Invisible Man; The War of the Worlds

Wilde, Oscar: 24 works

Woolf, Virginia: The Voyage Out

World Literature

Aeschylus: 7 plays

Aesop’s Fables

Alighieri, Dante: The Divine Comedy

Andersen, Hans Christian: 39 major tales and other works

Ariosto, Lodovico: Orlando Furioso

Aristophanes: Lysistrata; The Frogs; The Wasps

Campanella, Tommaso: The City of the Sun

Cervantes, Miguel De: Don Quixote; The Jealous Estramaduran

Cicero: letters and essays

Collodi, Carlo: Pinocchio—The Adventures of a Puppet

Dostoevsky, Fyodor Mikhailovich: Crime and Punishment: The Brothers Karamazov

Dumas, Alexandre: The Three Musketeers; The Man in the Iron Mask

Euripides: Electra; Heracles; Iphigenia in Tauris; The Trojan Women

Flaubert, Gustave: Madame Bovary

Giovanni, Boccaccio: The Decameron

Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von: Faust

Grimm, Jacob Ludwig, and Grimm, Wilhelm Carl: 210 stories

Hugo, Victor: Les Miserables

Ibsen, Henrik: A Doll’s House; Hedda Gabler

Khayyam, Omar: Rubaiyat

Leroux, Gaston: Phantom of the Opera

Maupassant, Guy de:Bel-Ami

Moliere: Tartuffe

Montgomery, Lucy Maud: Anne of Green Gables

Ovid: Metamorphoses

Song of Roland

Stendhal: The Red and the Black

Tolstoy, Leo: War and Peace; Anna Karenina; 1 book of stories

Verne, Jules: Around The World in Eighty Days; Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea

Voltaire: Candide

Wyss, Johann: The Swiss Family Robinson

Yeats, William Butler: “The Lake Isle of Inisfree”

2. Selected quotations

. . . When war was begun between the North and the South, every slave on our plantation felt and knew that, though other issues were discussed, the primal one was that of slavery. —— Booker T. Washington: Up from Slavery.

Then on a stately oak I cast mine eye,

Whose ruffling top the clouds seem’d to aspire;

How long since thou wast in thine infancy?

 —— Anne Bradstreet: “Contemplations”.

“I pray thee, shepherd, if that love, or gold,

Can in this desert place buy entertainment,

Bring us where we may rest ourselves and feed.”

 —— William Shakespeare: As You Like It.

The child who is decked with prince’s robes and who has jewelled chains round his neck loses all pleasure in his play; his dress hampers him at every step. —— Rabindranath Tagore: Gitanjali (Song Offerings).

Master Pangloss taught the metaphysico-theologo-cosmolonigology. . . . “It is demonstrable,” said he, “that things cannot be otherwise than as they are; for as all things have been created for some end, they must necessarily be created for the best end. Observe, for instance, the nose is formed for spectacles, therefore we wear spectacles.” —— Voltaire: Candide.

F. Science & Mathematics

Important and epoch-making writing from dozens of great scientists and mathematicians appears in this extensive and varied collection. The five main sections, each of which is divided into numerous subsections, are General Science, Life Science, Physical Science, Mathematics, and Applied Science.

The General Science section covers the history of science in extensive collections such as A Source Book in Greek Science, A Source Book in Medieval Science, and Classics of Modern Science, Copernicus to Pasteur. In addition, there are descriptions of discoveries and theories by great scientists such as, Albert Einstein, Benjamin Franklin, and William Thomson Kelvin on the absolute scale of temperature, and Antoine Laurent Lavoisier on the permanence of matter and the nature of combustion.. The philosophy of science is covered in major works by Rene Descartes and Immanual Kant, with essays, papers, and fragments from outstanding names such as Anaximander, Anaxagoras, Roger Bacon, and Pliny the Elder.

Life Science includes an extensive subsection on general life science, which covers history, philosophy, and major theories such as germ theory with extracts from the writing and correspondence of Louis Pasteur. The second subsection, Botany, includes a dissertation on the sexes of plants by Carolus Linnaeus. Zoology, the next subsection, has a Source Book in Animal Biology, and zoological writings by such scientists as Aristotle and William Harvey. Physiology includes the thoughts of Charles Bell on nerves, David Ferrier on location of brain function, Hippocrates, Edward Jenner on immunization, and William Harvey. Other subsections of the Life Sciences similarly full of great scientists’ writing include Genetics, Paleontology, Ecology, Microbiology, and Ornithology. A final subsection, on Great Life Scientists, gives biographical information on many of the contributors to this section.

Physical Science covers this important area in five extensive subsections. Astronomy (Space Science) ranges from the first heliocentric theory of Aristarchus of Samos and the condemnation of Galileo Galilei through source books on astronomy from 1900 to 1950, and from 1900 to 1975, to Norman Lockyer writing on the chemistry of the stars. Chemistry has source books covering the history from 1400 to 1900, and from 1900 to 1950, plus writings by more than 20 great chemists. Physics, too, has a source book with 150 historical essays, plus many interesting and important papers by such great scientists as Joseph Henry, Henri Poincare, Wilhelm Roentgen, and Thomas Young. Two other similarly structured subsections also cover Geography, Meteorology, Oceanography; and Geology.

The Mathematics section covers General Mathematics, Analysis, and Mathematical Logic. One extensive source book covers general mathematics from 1200 to 1800, another covers classical analysis, and a third covers mathematical logic from Frege to Godel. Individual papers and essays cover the work of great thinkers such as Archimedes, Aristotle, Euclid, and Pythagoras.

Applied Science is an extensive section, divided into Engineering and Medicine. Further subdivisions cover topics such as acoustical, aerospace, and agricultural engineering, each with writings by people who made breakthroughs in the field, such as the Wright brothers. Medicine has whole works by Galen and Hippocrates, and important papers in anatomy and physiology

1. Major scientists and examples of works

Anaximander: “Fragments”

Archimedes: “Cattle Problem, The”

Aristotle: On the Parts of Animals

Bacon, Roger: On the Importance of Studying Mathematics.

Classics of Modern Science

Darwin, Charles: Coral Reefs; Geological Observations on South America; Volcanic Observations; Origin of Species

Einstein, Albert: “The Foundation of the General Theory of Relativity”; “On the Influence of Gravitation of the Propagation of Light”

Euclid: “The Pythagorean Theorem”

Fahrenheit, Daniel Gabriel: “Fahrenheit Scale, The”

Franklin, Benjamin: Autobiography; 11 essays; 1 volume of letters

Galen: On the Natural Faculties

Harvey, William: “An Anatomical Disquisition on the Motion of the Heartblood in Animals”

Henry, Joseph: “On the Production of Currents and Sparks of Electricity From Magnetism”

Herschel, Sir William: “The Discovery of Uranus”

Hippocrates: Aphorisms; Of the Epidemics; Instruments of Reduction

Huxley, Thomas Henry: On Some Fossil Remains of Man; Lectures On Evolution

Jenner, Edward: “The Theory of Vaccination”

Kanada, Yasumasa: “One Divided By Pi (to 1 million digits)”

Kelvin, William Thomson: “An Absolute Scale of Temperature”

Kant, Immanuel: The Science of Right

Koch, Robert: “Theory of Bacteria”

Lavoisier, Antoine Laurent: “The Nature of Combustion”; “Respiration as Combustion”

Lockyer, Sir Joseph: “The Chemistry of the Stars”

Lyell, Sir Charles: Student’s Elements of Geology, The

Newton, Sir Isaac: “The Theory of Gravitation”

Pasteur, Louis: “Inoculation for Hydrophobia”

Pliny the Elder: “The Inventors of Various Things”; “An Account of the World and Its Elements”

Priestley, Joseph: “The Discovery of Oxygen”

Schwann, Theodore: “Cell Theory”

Watt, James: “Invention of the Steam Engine”

Wright Brothers, The: “The First Airplane to Fly Successfully”

2. Major works, documents and papers relating to science

Descartes, Rene: Discourse on the Method of Right Conducting the Reason and Seeking Truth in the Sciences

“First 100,000 Prime Numbers, The”

Hippocrates: The Oath

Human Genome Project: Chromosome Numbers 1 – 24 (24 sections)

“Square Root of 4 to a Million Places, The”

“The Invention of the Telephone: The Share in It of Edison And Bell”

U.S. National Atomic Museum: Trinity Atomic Bomb

3. Selected Quotations

Anaximander said the sun was a ring twenty-eight times the size of the earth. . . . Further, he says that in the beginning man was born from animals of a different species. —— Fragments of Thought of Anaximander

Dear Mr. Pasteur:

“For the first time in the history of science, we are justified in cherishing confidently the hope that, as far as epidemic diseases are concerned, medicine will soon be delivered from empiricism, and placed on a real scientific basis.” —— John Tyndall, in a letter dated February 16, 1876.

G. Philosophy & Religion

Philosophy has three subsections providing grounding in the development of philosophy; epistemology, including David Hume’s Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding;and logic, including the great writing of Aristotle and Rene Descartes. The fourth subsection is the heart of Philosophy, with the great works of no fewer than 26 major philosophers.

Religious studies, especially comparative religion, have received an extra emphasis in recent times following the September 11, 2001 attack on the United States by terrorists claiming to act in the name of Islam. Coverage in the Religion section starts with a general subsection on the development of religion, including William James’ book The Varieties of Religious Experience. This is followed by writings about, and the holy books of, great religions: classical mythology; Hinduism; Buddhism; Confucianism; Taoism; Christianity; and Islam. Work on adding holy books of other religions, including Judaism, is in hand for 2002 publication.

1. Major philosophers and religious writers

Philosophical works of writers including the following:

Antonius, Marcus Aurelius

Aquinas, Thomas


Bacon, Francis

Bentham, Jeremy

Berkeley, George

Descartes, Rene

Erasmus, Desiderius

Hume, David

Kant, Immanuel

Leibnitz, Gottfried Wilhelm

Locke, John

Malthus, Thomas Robert

Mill, John Stuart

Nietzsche, Friedrich

Paine, Thomas



Rousseau, Jean-Jacques

Russell, Bertrand Arthur William 3rd, Earl,


Holy scriptures and philosophical guides

Book of Mormon, The

Buddha, The Gospel

Confucian Analects

Holy Bible, King James Version

Holy Bible, The Douay-Rheims Version

Laws of Manu, The

Quran, The

Tao Te Ching

Upanishads, The

Yoga Sutras of Patanjali

Religious writing of writers including the following:

Bunyan, John

Butler, Samuel

Doyle, Sir Arthur Conan

Eddy, Mary Baker

Gamble, Eliza Burt

Giles, Herbert Allen

Ginzberg, Louis

Hutton, Joseph Edmund

James, William

Lang, Andrew

Latimer, Hugh


Luther, Martin

MacCaffrey, James

Mather, Cotton

Melanchthon, Philip

Pinches, Theophilus Goldridge

Shepard, Thomas

Twain, Mark

Wheatley, Phillis

White, Andrew Dickson

Wigglesworth, Michael

Williams, Roger

2. Selected quotations

Descartes (1596–1650) tried to sweep away all uncertainties and start from one absolutely certain fact, “Cogito, ergo sum,” as he expressed it,—“I think, and in so thinking I exist.” —— The Beginnings of Modern Philosophy from the Library of Original Sources.

Memory gives the souls a sort of consecutiveness which is like reason, but which ought to be distinguished from it. —— Leibniz: “Monadology”.

. . . there is a considerable difference between the perceptions of the mind, when a man feels the pain of excessive heat, or the pleasure of moderate warmth, and when he afterwards recalls to his memory this sensation, or anticipates it by his imagination. . . . The most lively thought is still inferior to the dullest sensation. —— David Hume: An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding.

A man and an ox are both ‘animal’ . . . if a man should state in what sense each is an animal, the statement in the one case would be identical with that in the other. —— Aristotle: Categories.


The higher criticism of the Bible is only a study of the Bible from this existential point of view. . . . Under just what biographic conditions did the sacred writers bring forth their various contributions to the holy volume? And what had they exactly in their several individual minds? These are manifestly questions of historical fact . . . of what use should such a volume, with its manner of coming into existence so defined, be to us as a guide to life and a revelation? —— William James: The Varieties of Religious Experience.

That (seed) became a golden egg, in brilliancy equal to the sun; in that (egg) he himself was born as Brahman, the progenitor of the whole world. —— Hinduism/The Laws of Manu.


The Master said, “If the people be led by laws, and uniformity sought to be given them by punishments, they will try to avoid the punishment, but have no sense of shame. If they be led by virtue, and uniformity sought to be given them by the rules of propriety, they will have the sense of shame, and moreover will become good.” —— Confucius: Confucian Analects.

Thou awakest us to delight in Thy praise; for Thou madest us for Thyself, and our heart is restless, until it repose in Thee. Grant me, Lord, to know and understand which is first, to call on Thee or to praise Thee? —— The Confessions of Saint Augustine.


Psalms|1:1 Blessed is the man that walketh not in the counsel of the ungodly, nor standeth in the way of sinners, nor sitteth in the seat of the scornful.

Psalms|1:2 But his delight is in the law of the Lord; and in his law doth he meditate day and night. —— The Bible.


Praise belongs to God, the Lord of the worlds, the merciful, the compassionate, the ruler of the day of judgment! Thee we serve and Thee we ask for aid. Guide us in the right path, the path of those Thou art gracious to; not of those Thou art wroth with; nor of those who err. —— The Quran

H. Language

A useful resource to support language skills development and foreign language learning, this collection has two main sections, Language Arts and Languages. The first section covers speech communication, including famous orations throughout history; writing grammar and composition; philology, the evolution of consonants in European languages; vowels; and the derivation of English from Latin.

The main, Languages, section contains works in 11 languages: Danish, Dutch, Flemish, French, German, Italian, Latin, Portuguese, Spanish, Swedish, and Welsh. Many of the works, such as Don Quijote by Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra, are also available translated into English in the Original Sources collection of Literature.

1. Major writers and examples of works

Language arts

The World’s Famous Orations

“The Derivation of English From Latin”


Heinrich Heine: De Beurs Lacht, De Franse Pers, and Franse Toestanden.


Alexandre Dumas (pere et fils), Henri III et sa Cour; Dame aux Camelias, La

Moliere: L’Etourdi

Marcel Proust: L’Ombre des Jeunes Filles en Fleurs, A

Edmond Rostand: Cyrano de Bergerac

Stendhal (6 novels)

Jules Verne: De la Terre a la Lune; Tour du Mond 80 Joures

Voltaire: Vie de Molière


Anzengruber, Ludwig: G’wissenswurm; Bauernkomödie in drei Akten, Der

Arnim, Ludwig Achim, Freiherr von: Isabella von Aegypten; Kaiser Karl des Fünften erste Jugendliebe

Brentano, Clemens: Maerhen von dem Mytrenfraeulin, Das

Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von: Briefe aus der Schweiz; Die Lieden des JungenWerther;Egmont;Faust; 11 Wilhelm Meisters books, and 13 other works

Hebbel, Friedrich: Herodes und Mariamne; eine tragödie in fünf akten; Schnock; ein niederländisches Gemälde

Heine, Heinrich: Buch der Lieder

Hesse, Hermann: Siddhartha: eine indische Dichtung

May, Karl Friedrich: Mein Leben und Streben

Meyer, Conrad Ferdinand: Die Versuchung des Pescara

Mommsen, Theodor: Roemische Geschichte 6 volumes

Wieland, Christoph Martin: Geschichte des Agathon; Oberon


Dante Alighieri: Divina Commedia

Ariosto, Lodovico: Orlando Furioso


Virgil: The Aeneid; The Bucolics and Eclogues; The Georgics

Cicero: Orations

Julius Caesar’s Commentaries on the Gallic War

Latin Vulgate Bible

Martin Luther: 95 Theses

Propertius, Sextus: Sexti Properti Carmina


J. Simoes Lopes Netto: Lendas Do Sol

Luis de Camoes: Os Lusiadas.


Cervantes Saavedra, Miguel de: Don Quijote

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers: Bombardos Atomicos De Hiroshima y Nagasaki

Spanish short stories and plays

A Progressive Spanish reader

Selections from modern Spanish writers.


Bibeln (The Bible)


Sir Owen Morgan Edwards: Cartrefi Cymru

Hughes, Ceiriog: Ceiriog

O’r Nant, Twm: The Works of Twm O’r Nant

2. Selected quotations

The Consonants (Grimm’s and Verner’s Law).This describes the changes in consonants over the centuries, and gives examples of how words have changed in the evolution into Aryan, Greek, Latin, Gothic, Anglo Saxon, English, Old High German, and German languages, such as: Kcrntom hekaton centum hund hundret hundred hundert Hundert. —— Oliver J. Thatcher, The Library of Original Sources, 1907.

Sevilla es la Sephela fundada por los Fenicios, la Julia Rómula de los romanos y la Ixbilyah de los árabes. La ciudad está situada cerca del Guadalquivir, y ha conservado como ninguna otra ciudad la apariencia oriental y el ambiente soñador y lánguido de los sarracenos. —— Carolina Marcial Dorado: “Sevilla.”